White-collar crime can be termed as “the crimes committed by a person of respectability and high social rank or status in the course of their occupation”, this was said by Edwin H. Sutherland. Not every crime involves smoking a gun. Some crimes are even committed under the nose of the victim without a single shot fired. White-collar crime and corporate crime are nonviolent in nature and are done for financial gain. These types of crimes are covered under criminal acts that are nonviolent but are financially motivated. These are committed by government professionals and businessmen, through deceptive practices, for the purpose of financial gain. They are able to do so because they can access a large amount of money. These criminals are characterized by the violation of trust, concealment of facts, and deceit.
White-collar crime now consists of two general forms of crime: occupational crime and organizational crime. Occupational crime is assessed as crimes that employees commit against a corporation, whereas organizational crime is assessed as crimes that companies commit against the overall public and consumers. Organizational crime is comprised of “crimes incidental to, and in furtherance of, business operations, but not the central purpose of the business” and “crimes as a business or because the central activity” of the organization, while occupational crime mainly consists of the “crimes committed in the course of their occupations by those operating inside establishments in violation of their duty to employer or client”.
VARIOUS SECTORS AFFECTED BY WHITE-COLLAR CRIME-
There are various fields or sectors which are badly affected by Corporate Crime and White-Collar Crime-
- Corporate Field- There are solely a handful of instances of white-collar crimes practiced in day-to-day life by certain professionals within the course of their profession. The most important role in committing white-collar crimes is played by the business tycoons and politicians, whose greed and desires multiply with the addition they acquire. In India, whenever any major scandal involves the media focus, a radical investigation continuously finds an unlawful involvement of political parties in it. So far because the businessmen are involved, their acts of white-collar crimes transcend count. they’re termed because corporate or organisational criminals who often are involved in felonious contracts, combination, and conspiracies of trade restraints, unfair labor practices, merchandising of adulterated foods and medicines, bribing of public officers and so on and so forth. They take advantage of the corporate veil and indulge in several crimes. The Satyam scam case is one of the worth-mentioning illustrations, wherever it had been seen how an individual, concealing himself within the veil of incorporation, takes pleasure in defrauding crores of cash.
- Medical Field-In this field Corporate Crime or White-Collar Crime is generally committed by person belonging to medical profession by the issuance of wrong medical certificate, selling drugs and medicine to patients and illegal abortions. The supreme court has defined medical negligence to include overdose of medicine, not informing the patient but the side effects of the medicine.
In India, the white-collar crimes are widely spread, it doesn’t confine itself within the legal arena. Similar unfortunate instances are often drawn from different professions too, like that of medical practitioners, engineers, educationalists, businessmen, politicians and thus the list goes on. The medical practitioners are usually found concerned within the issuance of false certificates, completing illicit abortions, merchandising out sample medicine and other drugs, even in some cases adulterated medicine and medicines to the patients. They usually adopt dilatory techniques in providing treatment to their patients with menswear to extract a huge quantity of cash; regardless of the person features a good practice. Several ill-famed instances are seen, where the medical professionals put up before the society the optimum level of brutal character, they’re going to reach for the crave of creating cash. Dishonorable and pretend promotion claiming absolute cure is additionally one among the frequent malpractices being allotted within the medical community.
- Engineering- Corporate Crime or White-Collar Crime field includes using sub-standard and low-grade material within the construction of buildings, roads, dams, canals, etc. Resulting in the danger for the security of the public at an outsized scale.
- Educational Institutions- Corporate Crime or White-Collar Crime in this field has increased by a large number. The activities involved in the crime of this area include- wrong and misleading prospectus, false recruitments, termination of services, problem in pay, unfair transfer in government schools and universities etc. In the case of Nidhi Kainv V. Madhya Pradesh, the supreme court held that using unfair means in the examination led to the disqualification of the same and principle of natural justice, Audi Alteram must be followed. The matter involves the white-collar crimes educational institutions do are available within the league to control with freedom. A disgusting role is played by the private institutions as they are least bothered in providing the education, however, they only concentrate on creating a business at the price of a child’s future. Even rackets operate in these institutions for procuring students to look within the examinations depending upon manipulated eligibility certificates, thereby damaging the standard of education in India. Once it involves the Governmental institutions, the lecturers and staff of the establishments are usually found to be involved in unscrupulous practices, since they’re going to hardly build a fortune from the inadequate pay they receive from the govt.
- Legal Professionals- In this field, Corporate Crime or White-Collar Crime has been widely spread. The common legal and professional violations committed by lawyers in legal advisors are advising organized criminals, fabricating false evidence, and adding false claims. The white-collar crimes became a development to be reckoned with the commercial revolution. The modern industrial economies have evolved with time and becoming more advanced in nature because it developed a growing business nexus among insurance, banking, stocks, and related company matters. This successively gave rise to crucial legal intricacies regarding property rights and different legal matters that paved the way for the birth of a replacement category of advocates who within the name of providing justice started abetting within the incorrect and thereby pursued their slender interest. an oversized type of advocates evolved, who forget the pious oath of serving the society and commenced trying to seek out the legal loopholes and concentrated within the main in serving to out the rich entrepreneurs to grow richer. They made an intensive study to undertake out ways in which for optimum evasion for these wealthy company personalities still as for themselves. The white-collar crimes committed by these legal practitioners solely reach find out contraband ways of tax-evasion. There are frequent instances of unethical practices such as fabricating false evidence, participating in skilled witnesses, violating moral standards of the bar, and dilatory techniques in collusion with the ministerial workers of the courts. The instances of white-collar crimes committed within the Indian society by the lawyers, there lay the shameful illustrations of Magistrates and judges concerned in committing crimes. They within the name of decoding the laws typically act because the protective shield for the goons having or not having any political color and permit them to travel free whereas they need to be subjected to deterrence. It’s the foremost unfortunate scenario at constant time devastating because here the crimes are committed by those people that are being given by the State the responsibility to verify justice.