Types of bills in the Indian Parliament
A bill is a proposal for legislation that, when adopted, becomes an act or law. Every bill must go through many phases in each House. Private bills and public bills are the two types of bills introduced in Parliament. Although all legislation are subject to the same procedure in the House, they might differ in a variety of ways.
The Bills introduced in the Indian Parliament are of four types:
- Money Bill
- Financial Bill
- Ordinary Bill
- Constitution Amendment Bill
Money bills are legislation that contain provisions that address all of the issues listed in Article 110 of the Indian Constitution. These legislation are mostly concerned with financial issues such as governmental expenditure and taxation. Only with the consent of the President of India may a money bill be tabled in the Lok Sabha. The Rajya Sabha cannot reject the bill. It can be held in the Rajya Sabha for no more than 14 days before being forwarded to the President for approval. The President cannot return the bill to the House for reconsideration, but in the case of other types of Bills of Parliament, the option to return the bill to the House for reconsideration exists. Article 110 mentions the following provisions:
- Imposition, repeal, remission, modification, or control of any tax.
- The Union Government’s borrowing of money is regulated.
- Custody of the India Consolidated Fund or the India Contingency Fund.
- Appropriation of funds from India’s Consolidated Fund
Financial bills are those that address fiscal issues such as revenue and spending. However, the word “financial bill” is used in the Constitution in a “technical meaning.” The many types of financial bills are as follows:
Article 110: Money Bills
Article 117 of the Financial Bills (I) (1)
Article 117 of the Financial Bills (II) (3)
This means that all money bills are financial bills, but not all financial bills are money bills. A money bill is considered a financial bill if it only covers the items specified in Article 110 of the Indian Constitution.
Ordinary bills are ones that deal with anything other than financial problems. All regular bills must pass through the following stages in Parliament:
First Reading: During the first stage, a minister or any other member introduces the bill in either House. The member who wishes to introduce the bill requests a leave of absence from the House. After the House grants leave, the bill is introduced by reciting its title and goals. There is no debate of the bill at this time. The bill is then published in the Indian Gazette.
Second Reading: The second reading is regarded as a crucial step in which the bill is subjected to not only a general but also a comprehensive examination. During this stage, the bill takes on its final form. There are three further sub-stages:
General Discussion Stage- During this stage, the House may take any of the following actions:
- The bill may be taken into consideration immediately or on a particular date.
- The measure might be sent to a House select committee.
- The bill might be referred to a joint committee of the two Houses.
- The bill may be sent to the public for comment.
Committee Stage- The bill is examined by the committee, and modifications are proposed without affecting the essential concepts. Following the conclusion of the committee’s deliberations, the bill is returned to the House.
Stage of consideration- After receiving the bill, the House examines its provisions. Each provision is debated and voted on separately.
Third Reading: The third reading is regarded as a procedural stage in which no additional modifications are permitted because the basic concept of the bill has already been evaluated in the preceding stage. If the measure receives a majority vote, it is considered approved by the House.
Constitution Amendment Bill
Article 368 is concerned with Constitutional Amendment Bills. Article 368 allows for two forms of amendments, however in India, three types of amendments are used:
- Simple majority is required for amendment.
- Special majority amendment
- Amendment by special majority and approval by half of the state legislatures
When a law is passed by both Houses of Parliament, it is presented to the President of India for his signature. In the case of all legislation save the Constitution Amendment Bill, the President has the authority to either return the bill for reconsideration or to give or withhold his approval.