From the very beginning, India is known for its amazing and diversified culture and customs. The tribal culture is also very interesting and diversified. The tribal people are also called ‘Adivasis’, or ‘depressed classes’. The Adivasis are in existence from the era of pre- aryan. With an exquisite and rich historical record, Madhya Pradesh is considered one of the homes for diverse forms of art and culture. Various forms of arts have been moved and enhanced from the loop of generation which are used and practiced by the artisans and artists. After Africa, India has the highest population of Tribal people. Every part and region of the country has different types of culture and art. A lot of definitions have been given by different Anthropologists like Rivers, Perry, Lowie, etc. but all these definitions are deemed to be incomplete and not actual. So, there is no universal definition or meaning of the Tribal people.

But in terms of a layman language- Tribal people or community are a group or set of individuals who have similar interests and live in jungle areas, who are illiterate people.

According to the Tata Institute of Social Science, Tribe is- It could be a collection of various families who have particularly no community in the scientific sense. They decide their function on their own and are independent beings. Economic backwardness is very relative.

According to D.N Majumder, the tribe is a kind of social group that has a territorial affiliation, endogamous with no specialization of functions ruled by tribal officers hereditary or otherwise, united in language or dialect recognizing social distance with other tribe or castes.

According to the Imperial Gazetteer of India, a tribe is a collection of families being a common name, speaking a common dialect, to occupy a common territory and is not usually and agamous.

Tribe in India are not homogenous they create a large number of society within themselves. According to Article 342 of the Indian Constitution, there are approximately 700 Schedule Tribes.

The term ‘Tribe’ is basically originated in ancient Rome, it came from the word ‘Tribus’.


  • They usually live in forests and hilly areas.
  • They have a different way of enjoying life.
  • They share a common dialect with a shared folk-lore.
  • Instrument of social bonds among tribes in kinship.
  • They in habitat in a particular geographical and social area.

Tribal art is a visual art of the indigenous people. It is religious in nature. They are also known as primitive art or ethnographic art. With the pace of time, these non-western. it is a way of representation in nature through paintings, vessels, jewelry, or sculptures. Meena Varma a tribal art promoter promoting this primitive art and bringing it to the limelight.

Tribal art is mainly a way of expression of their belief, religion, and way of living. They are basically different from the urban counterpart. Tribal art is known for its colorful and unique language of expression.

India is home to more than 2600 tribes. Some of the famous art are Gond paintings, Madhubani painting, source painting of Odisha, Pithoro painting of Gujrat, and a lot more. They are considered to be more ethical in nature.


Madhubani paintings-

It is also known as Mithila painting. It is originated in the Mithila region of Bihar in India. This place is known as the birthplace of the Hindu Goddess Sita. There is a story behind this, it is said that king Janaka, the father of Sita asked the people to paint the region with Madhubani painting as he was very happy that his daughter was getting married to Lord Ram and this is how Madhubani born. In this style of painting, it includes double line consist of beautiful borders with intricate patterns, peacock, fishes, elephant, etc are consistently use motives in multiple styles of Madhubani art i.e. Bharni, Kachin, Tantrik, Khobar.



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