The 7th Schedule of the Indian Constitution deals with the division of powers between the Union government and State governments. It is a part of 12th Schedule of Indian Constitution. The division of powers between Union and State is notified through three kinds of the list mentioned in the seventh schedule
1.Union List – List I
2.State List – List II
3.Concurrent List – List III
- Union List (List I) – Originally it had 97 subjects. Now, it has 100 subjects. Centre has exclusive powers to makes laws on these subjects. The Union List signifies the strong centre as it has more subjects than state list. All the issues/matters that are important for the nation and those requiring uniformity of legislation nationwide are included in the Union List. The dominance of Union List over State List is secured by the Constitution of India as in any conflict between the two or overlapping, the Union List prevails. Powers of union government enlisted in this list can be enlarged only by the Parliament and by Supreme Court if it would have the jurisdiction. Some important Subjects include – Defence, International Relations, Railways etc.
- State List (List II) – It has 61 subjects. Earlier, it had 66 items. The laws can be made on the subjects enumerated under the State List of the Indian Constitution exclusively by the State legislatures. However, all these can be done only under ‘Normal Circumstances. But, Article 249 gives Parliament the power to legislate concerning a subject enumerated in the State List in the national interest.
Parliament can legislate on the subjects of the State List on following conditions:
- When Rajya Sabha passes a resolution demanding the Parliament to make
- During a national emergency (Article 250)
- When two or more states pass a resolution requesting Parliament to legislate on subjects under State list. On states’ resolution, the law made is only applicable to such states that passed a resolution. However, other states can too adopt it by, passing the same resolution. The law made by the Parliament on States’ resolution can be amended or repealed by the Parliament only and not the states: For the implementation of International Agreements During President’s Rule
- Some of the important subjects include Policing, Public Order, Public health and sanitation, hospitals
- Concurrent List (List III) – It has 52 subjects. The concept of ‘Concurrent List’ in the Indian Constitution has been borrowed from the Constitution of Australia. Central Government and State Government both can make laws on the subjects mentioned under the Concurrent List. While both Central and State Government can legislate on subjects mentioned under Concurrent List, however, in case of any conflict, the law made by the Central Government prevails. The matters on which uniformity of legislation throughout the country is desirable but not essential are enumerated in the concurrent list.
Some of the important subjects are: Education, Forest, Marriage, Adoption, Succession
NEED TO REVISIT THE SCHEDULE-
- There should be a consultation process between the Union and states via a high powered committee for legislation on concurrent subjects. The members of this committee should be experts in the field of technology, legal experts, economists, academicians and policymakers. This would help in effective laws on a particular s
- Centrally Sponsored Schemes (CSS) should be flexible enough to allow states to adapt and innovate. We need to constitute an Empowered Group of domain experts to submit to the finance minister and Prime Minister on modalities of these CSS
- There is need for another forum for ongoing consultative dialogue after the abolition of the Planning Commission. The states have pleaded for a credible institution acting as a link for a policy dialogue with the Centre.
IMPORTANCE OF XIIth SCHEDULE
- Help India in accommodating the diversity of the nation as States can make laws according to the needs and culture of the citizens residing in that State
- Helps in better governance as India is large in terms of area and diversity. Thus, it would not be possible for the Central Government to make laws on every subject or matter of importance.
- Helps India in retaining Federal System of Governance (part of the basic structure of the Constitution). Therefore,