Theories of Cyber Criminology By Zainub @LEXCLIQ

Internet came into commercial use in late 1980s, after that it revolutionized and changed everything in a broader way. Mainly automation, cloud computing, IOT, e-commerce transformed everything in marketing and sales, banking sector lead to it’s development, later social media came into existence with drastic changes.

But yes every things comes with certain disadvantages although internet has various positive impacts, but it became a very area of Wild West. Users started using it for their criminal activities, and many countries do not know how to control or handle it. Everything was going on in a slow pace.

Cyber Criminology-

Study of causation of crimes that occur in cyberspace and it’s impact in physical space.”It includes criminology, sociology, psychology, victimology, information technology, and computer internet sciences.

It involves:

  1. the examination of criminal behavior and
  2. victimization in cyber space from a criminological or behavioral theoretical perspective

We created this new domain because:

  1. Cyber crimes should not be perplexed with investigation and merged with cyber crimes.
  2. Presence of different body for studying and exploring cyber crimes from social perspectives

Theories on causation of crimes:

  1. Social Learning Theory, – according to Dr Akers people develop motivation to commit crime and the skills to commit crime through the people whom they associate.they learn every thing by direct experiences with people through positive and negative stimuli. It combined behavioral and cognitive theories to give comprehensive model which has a broader view of experiences that happens around the world.

Key points:

  1. Vicarious reinforcement- learning could be done by observing behaviour and it’s consequences
  2. It is a cognitive process not purely behavioral
  3. It includes observing, extracting and then making decisions from them.
  4. Reinforcement is not a key essential but somewhat plays a role in learning
  5. Reciprocal determinism- everything influences each other

Processes: According to Dr Aker there are 4 steps:

  1. Attention
  2. Retention
  3. Reproduction
  4. Motivation
  5. Routine Activities Theory: it encircles around 3 things:

“1. potential offender, 2. a suitable target, and 3. the absence of a capable guardian”.

It talks about how criminals commit their crimes based on their daily activities I.e while travelling they must come into contact. They have certain patterns upon which they work with motivated offenders, protector of person or property or places. These connections and patterns made up base which led to the recognization of their targets.

  1. Drift and Neutralization theory. It came into existence by Dr. Greshm Sykes in 1957 and his student Dr. David Matza. This theory gives different idea on social control, Dr.Matza was of the opinion that routine activity is not fully developed. This gives timely relief to people from moral constraints and allow people to go sweep back and forth between delinquent and conventional behaviour.

Five neutralization techniques are:

  1. denial of responsibility,
  2. denial of injury,
  3. denial of victims,
  4. appeal to higher loyalties, and
  5. condemnation of condemners

But they were not enough for explaining cyber crimes so we came up with:

  1. Space transition theory: everyone has subdued criminal mindset and behaviour and have chances of committing crime in their life, but won’t commit due to their status and position

But anonymity, lack of deterrence gives people chance to commit such crimes, and both these different behaviour must be extended to both the spaces, strangers get to know each other from cyber space and comes united to commit crimes , people from closed society and conflict of norms between cyber space and physical space would led to crimes.

 

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