The Environmental Issues in India

An Empirical Study on Environmental Issues in India

The word “Environment” is most commonly used to describe “natural” environment and means the sum of all living and non-living things that surround an organism, or group of organisms. Environment includes all elements, factors, and conditions that have some impact on growth and development of certain organism. The environmental issues in India become more serious every day and she is turning into a bit of a mess on this front but with a serious lack of education and over 1 Billion people, a huge amount of which are in dire poverty, it’s hardly surprising. The recent boom in its industries, little or no environmental education, infrastructure nearly at bursting point not to mention the huge deforestation that’s going on.. In fact, there is no shortage at all of government legislation protecting the environment but unfortunately it is never enforced due to flagrant abuse of power, corruption and lack of resources. One of the critical ecological problems is the global warming that caused by large emissions of carbon dioxide in atmosphere by cars, airplanes, fabrics all over the world.

The Major Environmental Issues in India
The rapid growing population and economic development is leading to a number of environmental issues in India. Major Environmental issues are Forest and Agricultural land degradation. Resource depletion (water, mineral, forest, sand, rocks etc.,) Environmental degradation. Public Health. Loss of Biodiversity. Livelihood Security for the Poor. Population The four basic demographic factors of births, deaths, migration and immigration produce changes in population size, composition, distribution and these changes raise a number of important questions of cause and effect. Population growth and economic development are contributing to many serious environmental calamities in India. These include heavy pressure on land land degradation, forests, habitat destruction and loss of biodiversity. Changing
consumption pattern has led to rising demand for energy. The final outcomes of this are air pollution, global warming, climate change, water scarcity and water pollution.

2. Forest and agricultural land degradation
Forest and agricultural land degradation An estimated 60% of cultivated land suffers from soil erosion, water logging, and salinity. It is also estimated that between 4.7 and 12 billion tons of topsoil are lost annually from soil erosion. Overexploitation of groundwater is problematic in the states of Haryana, Punjab, and Uttar Pradesh. The Indian Agricultural Research Institute has estimated
that a 3 °C rise in temperature will result in a 15 to 20% loss in annual wheat yields. These are substantial problems for a nation with such a large population depending on the productivity of primary resources and whose economic growth relies heavily on industrial growth. Forest area covers 18.34% of India’s geographic area (637000 km²). Nearly half of the country’s forest cover is found in the state of Madhya Pradesh (20.7%) and the seven states of the northeast (25.7%) ; the latter is experiencing net forest loss Forest cover is declining because of harvesting for fuel wood and the expansion of agricultural land. These trends, combined with increasing industrial and motor vehicle pollution output, have led to atmospheric temperature increases, shifting precipitation patterns.

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