Stridhan

The word stridhan has been derived from two different words, i.e. “Stri” which means woman and “Shan” which means property .so it means property of a woman . According to Mitakshara law stridhan means a property given by her father, mother, sister’s, brother or other relatives to a girl with love and affection either before marriage or at the time of marriage . Different smritikars has given different meaning as pointed women’s property . But in Hindu law has given stridhan a technical meaning . As according to Hindu law , if any property is given by husband to the wife or by in-laws to the daughter -in- law either at the time if the marriage or after the marriage that is considered as Stridhan . It includes every property whether movable or immovable and it is considered as separate property of a girl and no one has any interest in that property .
Before Hindu Succession Act 1956 , the property of women has been divided into two heads that is Stridhan and women’s estate .According to the smrititkars, there were different items of the property that constituted Stridhan. Property received by way of gift from relations (movable property, sometimes a house and piece of land was also given in gift) Property gifted by strangers at the time of the bridal procession or before the prenuptial fire. Properties obtained by inheritance, purchase, partition, seizure and finding (Vijnaneshwara) The view of the Vijnaneshawara was not accepted by the privy council, which led to the emergence of the concept of woman’s estate .Women’s estate where women was having limited ownership to her property which is either obtained by inheritance or obtained by Partition. She can enjoy it during her life but after death it will not pass to the heirs. As she having limited ownership with the property so she can’t not alienate the property. However for the legal , benefit of the state , discharging indispensable duties she had power to alienate it .she had even power of surrender or renouncing the property to nearest reversioners .
After the enactment of Hindu Succession Act ,1956 women now possess absolute ownership to stridhan.
Woman has full right of alienation .However, some restrictions are imposed on married woman. Stridhan for married woman was classified into two heads:
a) Saudayaka(gift of love and affection) she had full rights of alienation.
b) Non-Saudayaka (Gifts from the stranger/ property acquired by self exertion etc.) she had no right of alienation without the consent of her husband.
She constituted an independent stock of descent. i.e., on her death the property passed on to her descent. If a women does intestate, in such a situation that property is devolved according to the section 15 and 16 given in Hindu Succession Act 1956.

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