Schools of Islamic Law (Part 2)

´The Motazila Sect:-

´Around 9th Century A.D., the school emerged as a separate sect.

´This school was founded by Ata-al-Ghazzal.

´They do not correlate themselves from any of the two active sects. They were regarded as the defectors of the Shia society.

´The supporters of this School consider that Quran is the only base for their doctrines.

´Now the followers of Motazila sect are very less in number comparatively.

´Imam is an Islamic leadership position.

´It is most commonly used as the title of a worship leader of a mosque and Muslim community among Sunni Muslims. In this context, imams may lead Islamic worship services, serve as community leaders, and provide religious guidance. In Yemen, the title was formerly given to the king of the country.

´For Shi’a Muslims, the Imams are leaders of the Islamic community or ummah after the Prophet. The term is only applicable to the members of Ahl al-Bayt, the family of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad, designated as infallible.

´The Sunni branch of Islam does not have imams in the same sense as the Shi’a, an important distinction often overlooked by that outside of the Islamic religion. In everyday terms, the imam for Sunni Muslims is the one who leads Islamic formal (Fard) prayers, even in locations besides the mosque, whenever prayers are done in a group of two or more with one person leading (imam) and the others following by copying his ritual actions of worship.

´Friday sermon is most often given by an appointed imam. All mosques have an imam to lead them (congregational) prayers, even though it may sometimes just be a member from the gathered congregation rather than an officially appointed salaried person.

´ The position of women as imams is controversial. The person that should be chosen, according to Hadith, is one who has the most knowledge of the Quran and Sunnah (prophetic tradition) and is of good character.

´The Position of Imams In Turkey

´Imams are appointed by the state to work at mosques and they are required to be graduates of an İmam Hatip high school or have a university degree in Theology. This is an official position regulated by the Presidency of Religious Affairs in Turkey and only males are appointed to this position while female officials under the same state organization work as preachers and Qur’an course tutors, religious services experts. These officials are supposed to belong to the Hanafi school of the Sunni sect.

´A central figure in an Islamic movement is also called as an Imam like the Imam Nabhawi in Syria and Ahmad Raza Khan in India and Pakistan is also called as the Imam for Sunni Muslims.

´In the Shi’a context, an imam is not only presented as the man of God par excellence, but as participating fully in the names, attributes, and acts that theology usually reserves for God alone.

´Imams have a meaning more central to belief, referring to leaders of the community.

´Twelver and Ismaili Shi’a believe that these imams are chosen by God to be perfect examples for the faithful and to lead all humanity in all aspects of life.

´They also believe that all the imams chosen are free from committing any sin, impeccability which is called image. These leaders must be followed since they are appointed by God.

 

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