Rights of arrested person

Rights of an arrested person

Our country has a system that there must be a fair trial in each case so that no innocent will get punished. And accused should be provided with right to defence so that he can prove his innocence and can release from illegal detainment. That’s why crpc and our Constitution provide some rights to arrested persons . The reason behind these rights is that the government of India has enormous resources available to it for the prosecution of individuals, and individuals therefore are entitled to some protection from misuse of those powers by the government.


1. Right to know cause and grounds of arrest. (Section 50 (1) of CRPC)

According to the rule person who is arrested must know the reason behind his detainment. No officer can arrest a person without explaining the grounds of his detention . Accused can also ask for warrant of his offence is non-cognizable . And if a subordinate officer is arresting an accused he must show the letter of direction given by his senior. If he fails to do so he it will be considered as illegal detention.


2. Right to remain silent

During the course of his trial an accused has full right to remain silent. No one can force him to speak or accept his guilt. He is free to remain silent. In our Constitution we have article 20 (3). Which talks about No self incrimination means no one is compelled to be a witness against himself. It is fundamental right of accused to be keep quite. That’s why he can refuse to answer.



3. Information Regarding The Right To Be Released On Bail

Section 50(2) Cr.P.C. provides that “where a police officer arrests without warrant any person other than a person accused of a non- bailable offence, he shall inform the person arrested that he is entitled to be released in bail that he may arrange for sureties on his.” This will certainly be of help to persons who may not know about their rights to be released on bail in case of bailable offences. As a consequence, this provision may in some small measures, improve the relations of the people with the police and reduce discontent against them.


4. Right To Be Taken Before A Magistrate Without Delay

Whether the arrest is made without warrant by a police officer, or whether the arrest is made under a warrant by any person, the person making the arrest must bring the arrested person before a judicial officer without unnecessary delay. It is also provided that the arrested person should not be confined in any place other than a police station before he is taken to the magistrate. These matters have been provided in Cr.P.C. under section 56 and 76 which are as given below:


56. Person arrested to be taken before Magistrate or officer in charge of police station- A police officer making an arrest without warrant shall, without unnecessary delay and subject to the provisions herein contained as to bail, take or send the person arrested before a Magistrate having jurisdiction in the case, or before the officer in charge of a police station.


76. Person arrested to be brought before Court without delay- The police officer or other person executing a warrant of arrest shall (subject to the provisions of section 71 as to security) without unnecessary delay bring the person arrested before the Court before which he is required by law to produce such person.


Provided that such delay shall not, in any case, exceed 24 hours exclusive of the time necessary for the journey from the place of arrest to the Magistrate’s place.


5. Right Of Not Being Detained For More Than 24 Hours Without Judicial Scrutiny

Whether the arrest is without warrant or under a warrant, the arrested person must be brought before the magistrate or court within 24 hours. Section 57 provides as follows:


57. Person arrested not to be detained more than twenty-four hours- No police officer shall detain in custody a person arrested without warrant for a longer period than under all the circumstances of the case is reasonable, and such period shall not, in the absence of a special order of a Magistrate under section 167, exceed twenty-four hours exclusive of the time necessary for the journey from the place of arrest to the Magistrate’s Court.


6. Right To Consult A Legal Practitioner

Article 22(1) of the Constitution provides that no person who is arrested shall be denied the right to consult a legal practitioner of his choice. Further, as has been held by the Supreme Court that state is under a constitutional mandate (implicit in article 21) to provide free legal aid to an indigent accused person, and the constitutional obligation to provide free legal aid does not arise only when the trial commences but also attaches when the accused is for the first time produced before the magistrate, as also when remanded from time to time. It has been held by the Supreme Court that non- compliance with this requirement and failure to inform the accused of this right would vitiate the trial. Section 50(3) also provides that any person against whom proceedings are instituted under the code may of right be defended by a pleader of his choice. The right of an arrested person to consult his lawyer begins from the moment of his arrest. The consultation with the lawyer may be in the presence of police officer but not within his hearing.


7. . Rights Of Free Legal Aid

In Khatri(II) v. State of Bihar, the Supreme Court has held that the state is under a constitutional mandate (implicit in Article 21) to provide free legal aid to an indigent accused person, an and the constitutional obligation to provide free legal aid does not arise only when the trial commences but also attaches when the accused is for the first time produced before the magistrate, as also when remanded from time to time. However this constitutional right of an indigent accused to get free legal aid may prove to be illusory unless he is promptly and duly informed about it by the court when he is produced before it. The Supreme Court has therefore cast a duty on all magistrates and courts to inform the indigent accused about his right to get free legal aid. The apex court has gone a step further in Suk Das v. Union Territory of Arunachal Pradesh, wherein it has been categorically laid down that this constitutional right cannot be denied if the accused failed to apply for it. It s clear that unless refused, failure to provide free legal aid to an indigent accused would vitiate the trial entailing setting aside of the conviction and sentence.

8. Right To Be Examined By A Medical Practitioner

Section 54 now renumbered as Section 54(1) provides:


54. Examination of arrested person by medical practitioner at the request of the arrested person


When a person who is arrested, whether on a charge or otherwise, alleges, at the time when he is produced before a Magistrate or at any time during the period of his detention in custody that the examination of his body will afford evidence which will disprove the commission by him of any offence or which will establish the commission by any other person of any offence against his body, the Magistrate shall, if requested by the arrested person so to do direct the examination of the body of such person by a registered medical practitioner unless the Magistrate considers that the request is made for the purpose of vexation or delay or for defeating the ends of justice.


9. . Right Of The Accused To Produce An Evidence

The accused even has right to produce witness in his defence in case of police report or private defence. After the Examination and cross examination of all prosecution witness i.e. after the completion of the prosecution case the accused shall be called upon to enter upon his defence and any written statement put in shall be filled with the record. He may even call further for cross examination. The judge shall go on recording the evidence of prosecution witness till the prosecution closes its evidence.

Case Laws

# Satish Chandra Rai v. Jodu Nandan Singh, ILR 26 Cal 748; Abdul Gafur v. Queen- Emppress, ILR 23 Cal 896.

# 1969 Cri LJ 1440.

# Harikisan v. State of Mharashtra, AIR 1962 SC 911,914.

# Tarapada v. State if W.B., AIR 1951 SC 174.



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