Article by Muskan singh at lexcliq

Right to life :

The constitution of India provides each and every being a fundamental right to live from the very existence of their life. This fundamental right is covered under Article 21 of the constitution of India and protected by law.

Article 21 defines “Right to life & Personal liberty”.

The Article reads as –

“No person shall be deprived of his life or personal liberty except according to a procedure established by law.”

The right to life supports the idea that each and every living being has a right to live their life, and should not be killed by anyone. Everyone’s rights should be protected under law.

This concept of right to life generally arises in debatable issues like the capital punishments ( death penalty ), war, abortions ( killing of feticide ), euthanasia ( mercy killing ), police brutality, justifiable homicide ( killing without evil or criminal intent ), and animal rights.


Capital punishments :

Capital punishment is the worst violation of the important human right of right to life. Capital punishment is also known as “Death penalty”, it is a punishment for killing of a person. When a person is sentenced to death penalty it is called as “Death sentence”.

Crimes that are punishable by death sentence are known as capital crimes, capital offences or capital felonies. They may vary depending on the jurisdiction. It includes serious heinous crimes against the person such as murder, genocide, aggravated cases of rape, child rape, child sexual abuse, terrorism, war crimes and crimes against humanity, along with crimes against the state such as attempting to overthrow government, treason, espionage, sedition, piracy, and aircraft hijacking. Also, in some cases, acts of recidivism, aggravated robbery, and kidnapping, in addition to drug trafficking, drug dealing, and drug possession, are capital crimes or enhancements.

It is executed by various methods such as hanging, shooting, lethal injection, stoning, electrocution and gassing.

Although most of the nations have abolished the practice of capital punishment, but over 60% of the world’s population live in countries where the death penalty is retained, such as China, India, the United States, Indonesia, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nigeria, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Iran, as well as in Japan and Taiwan.


Euthanasia :

Euthanasia is a term which refers to “Right to die” and the concept of mercy killing. It is an argument for right to death in few cases, by those who believe to have a right to choose to end their life.

For example : Mercy killing can be granted for the patients with painful, incurable diseases. It is defined as hastening of death of a patient to prevent sufferings.

Euthanasia is categorized into two parts i.e.  voluntary and involuntary euthanasia.

  • Voluntary euthanasia or Active euthanasia is the intentional immediate ending of a human life. It refers to the term “Killing on request”, When a patient requests for ending the painful sufferings by mercy killing.
  • Involuntary euthanasia or Passive euthanasia is euthanasia in which the explicit consent of the individual concerned is unavailable. It is performed against the will of the patient. For example : Any patient who’s in vegetative state













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