REPRESENTATION@LEXCLIQ BY ANSHIKA JAIN

Political representation is the activity of making citizens “present” in public policy making processes when political actors act in the best interest of citizens.This definition of political representation is consistent with a wide variety of views on what representing implies and what the duties of representatives are.

For example, representing may imply acting on the expressed wishes of citizens, but it may alternatively imply acting according to what the representatives themselves judge is in the best interests of citizens. And representatives may be viewed as individuals who have been authorized to act on the behalf of others, or may alternatively be viewed as those who will be held to account by those they are representing. Political representation can happen along different units such as social groups and area, and there are different types of representation such as substantive representation and descriptive representation.

THEORIES OF REPRESENTATION

According to professor shepherd , there are 3 theories of representation :

  • The Primitive tribal theory : Political practice followed during Greek city States is known as tribal theory of representation. Under this system ,only the people having membership of State were had right to vote and slave slaves were not considered as a member of the
  • The Feudal theory : It highlights the property conditions of voting right in the State. It was in the middle ages in the European countries.
  • The Ethical theory : it considers voting rights as natural and inherent right of every citizen. Universal Adult Franchise is accepted under this theory. It is in present democratic countries
  • Other theories are :-
  • Authoritarian theory of representation
  • Radical theory of representation
  • Mirror theory of representation
  • Elitist theory of representation

SYSTEMS OF REPRESENTATION

 

  1. Majority system and Minority representation: The majority system is that system of election where a candidate who obtains a majority either in a single or a multi member constituency is declared elected. This majority may be either relative or absolute among the various candidates contesting the election.

In minority representative system a candidate is declared elected when he gets a maximum number of votes.

 

  1. Proportional representation : Proposed by J.S.Mill and John Locke

Different methods of proportional representation are : –

The Hare System : the principle was laid down by Thomas Hare in England in 1951 and in Denmark by Carl Andvae. It provides for the election of representatives by general ticket in multi-member constituencies.

The list System :It operates in multi member constituencies. It is of two types:

(a) the bound list

(b) the free list

DEMOCRACY

The term ‘Democracy’ was first used by Herodotus nearly 2500 years ago . Democracy is not only a form of Government , but also a way of life and a compound of several elements . The term ‘democracy’ which is drawn from the Greek words ‘demos’ means ‘people’ and ‘karatos’ means ‘ government’ means power or government of people.

Plato defined democracy as “a rule of ignorance”. Aristotle defined democracy as ‘the government by many perverted souls’.

Abraham Lincoln gives a very simple , easy and popular definition of democracy as “Democracy is government by the people, of the people and for the people.

J.S. Mill says that democracy is “a form of government in which the people exercise the governing power through deputies periodically elected by them . “

  CONCLUSION

 

  • Now , we are following democracy system which is of the people, from the people and by the people.
  • Every one is enjoying the right to vote .
  • People are free to choose their government.
  • The complexity, richness, and messiness of democratic politics generates opportunities for governments to expand citizens’ basic capabilities, agency, and rights. In turn, these advances contribute to individual and collective well-being This book demonstrates how multiple pathways within democratic regimes connect participatory institutions, rights-based social policies, and inclusive state capacity to human development. Of course there is no simple formula that permits citizens and governments to advance human development. We find that the slow, often cumbersome work of building democracy through participation, citizenship, and inclusive state capacity are crucial to initiate and sustain efforts to improve well-being. Each of these pathways can have a positive independent influence, but we find the strongest outcomes when two or all three pathways are activated simultaneously.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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