WHAT IS PATENT?
A patent is an exclusive right granted by the Government to the inventor to exclude others to use, make and sell an invention is a specific period of time. A patent is also available for improvement in their previous Invention. The main motto to enact patent law is to encourage inventors to contribute more in their field by awarding them exclusive rights for their inventions.
In modern terms, the patent is usually referred to as the right granted to an inventor for his Invention of any new, useful, non-obvious process, machine, article of manufacture, or composition of matter. The word “patent” is referred from a Latin term “patere” which means “to lay open,” i.e., to make available for public inspection.
HISTORY OF PATENT
The first step of the patent in India was Act VI of 1856. The main objective of the legislation was to encourage the respective inventions of new and useful manufactures and to induce inventors to reveal their inventions and make available for public. The Act was repealed by Act IX of 1857 as it had been enacted without the approval of the British Crown. Fresh legislation was enacted for granting ‘exclusive privileges’ was introduced in 1859 as Act XV of 1859. This legislation undergoes specific modifications of the previous legislation, namely, grant of exclusive privileges to useful inventions only, an extension of priority period from 6 months to 12 months. The Act excluded importers from the definition of an inventor. The Act was then amended in 1872, 1883 and 1888.
The Indian Patent and Design Act, 1911 repealed all previous acts. The Patents Act 1970, along with the Patent Rules 1972, came into force on 20 April 1972, replacing the Indian Patent and Design Act 1911. The Patent Act is basically based on the recommendations of the report Justice Ann. The Iyengar Committee headed by Rajagopalan Iyengar. One of the recommendations was the allowance of process patents in relation to inventions related to drugs, drugs, food and chemicals. Again, The Patents Act, 1970 was amended by the Patents (Amendment) Act, 2005 regarding extending product patents in all areas of technology including food, medicine, chemicals and microorganisms. Following the amendment, provisions relating to exclusive marketing rights (EMR) have been repealed, and a provision has been introduced to enable the grant of compulsory licenses. Provisions related to pre-grant and anti-post protests have also been introduced.
Patent infringement is a violation which involves the unauthorized use, production, sale, or offer of sale of the subject matter or Invention of another’s patent. There are many different types of patents, such as utility patents, design patents, and plant patents. The basic idea behind patent infringement is that unauthorized parties are not allowed to use patents without the owner’s permission.
When there is infringement of patent, the court generally compares the subject matter covered under the patent with the used subject matter by the “infringer”, infringement occurs when the infringer Uses patent material from in the exact form. Patent infringement is an act of any unauthorized manufacture, sale, or use of a patented invention. Patent infringement occurs directly or indirectly.
Direct patent infringement: The most common form of infringement is direct infringement, where the Invention that infringes patent claims is actually described, or the Invention performs substantially the same function.
Indirect patent infringement: Indirect patent infringement is the violation of a patent with or without the knowledge of the infringer.
REMEDIES FOR PATENT INFRINGEMENT
Patent infringement lawsuits can result in significantly higher losses than other types of lawsuits. Some laws, such as the Patent Act, allow plaintiffs to recover damages. Patent infringement is the illegal manufacture or usage of an invention or improvement of someone else’s invention or subject matter who owns a patent issued by the Government, without taking the owner’s consent either by consent, license or waiver. Several remedies are available to patent owners in the event of an infringement. Measures available in patent infringement litigation may include monetary relief, equal relief and costs, and attorneys’ fees.
Monetary Relief: Monetary relief in the form of compensatory damages is available to prevent patent infringement:
- Indemnity compensation – A patent owner may have lost profits for infringement when they established the value of the patent.
- Increased damage – Up to three times, compensation charges can be charged in cases of will or violation of will.
- The time period for damages – The right to damages can be claimed only after the date when the patent was issued and only 6 years before the infringement claim is filed.
Equitable relief: Orders are issued by the court to prevent a person from doing anything or Act. Injections are available in two forms:
- Preliminary injunction – Orders made in the initial stage of lawsuits or lawsuits that prevent parties from doing an act that is in dispute (such as making a patent product)
- Permanent injunction – A final order of a court which permanently ceases certain activities or takes various other actions.
Patents can provide great value and increased returns to individuals and companies on the investment made in developing new technology. Patenting should be done with an intelligent strategy that aligns business interests to implement the technology with a wide range of options in the search for how, where and when to patent. As an example, with a focus on international considerations and regulations in specific countries, it is possible for a company to achieve significant savings and improve the rights gained using patents.