NATIONAL SECURITY A NATIONAL SECURITY ANALYSIS OF THE CENTRAL ASIAN REGION

TAJAKISTAN

Republic of Tajikistan is a mountainous, landlocked country in Central Asia with an area of
143,100 km 2  (55,300 sq mi) and an estimated population of 9,275,828 people. It is borderedby Afghanistan to the south, Uzbekistan to the west, Kyrgyzstan to the north, and China to the
east. The traditional homelands of the Tajik people include present-day Tajikistan as well as parts of Afghanistan and Uzbekistan.
On 9 September 1991, Tajikistan became an independent sovereign nation when the Soviet
Union disintegrated. A civil war was fought almost immediately after independence, lasting from
1992 to 1997. Since the end of the war, newly established political stability and foreign aid have
allowed the country’s economy to grow. Like all other Central Asian neighbouring states, the
country, led by President Emomali Rahmon since 1994, has been criticised by a number of non-

governmental organisations for authoritarian leadership, lack of religious freedom, corruption
and widespread violations of human rights.
Tajikistan is a presidential republic consisting of four provinces. Most of Tajikistan's population
belongs to the Tajik ethnic group, [10]  who speak Tajik (a dialect of Persian). Russian is used as the
inter-ethnic language. While the state is constitutionally secular, Islam is practised by 98% of the

population. In the Gorno-Badakhshan Oblast of Tajikistan, despite its sparse population, there is
large linguistic diversity where Rushani, Shughni, Ishkashimi, Wakhi and Tajik are some of the
languages spoken. Mountains cover more than 90% of the country. It has a transition
economy that is highly dependent on remittances, aluminium and cotton production.

Tajikistan has a population of 9,275,832 people, of which 70% are under the age of 30 and 35%

are between the ages of 14 and 30. Tajiks who speak Tajik (a dialect of Persian) are the main
ethnic group, although there are sizeable minorities of Uzbeks and Russians, whose numbers are
declining due to emigration. The Pamiris of Badakhshan, a small population of Yaghnobi people,
and a sizeable minority of Ismailis are all considered to belong to the larger group of Tajiks. All
citizens of Tajikistan are called Tajikistanis.
In addition to this most of the Tajikistan’s economy is remittance based, mostly the tajiks who
are working in Russia, according to a report received in 2014 ajikistan was the world's
most remittance-dependent economy with remittances accounting for 49% of GDP and expected
to fall by 40% in 2015 due to the economic crisis in the Russian Federation.

Almost immediately after independence, Tajikistan was plunged into a civil war that saw various
factions fighting one another. These factions were supported by foreign countries
including Afghanistan, Iran, Pakistan, Uzbekistan and Russia. Russia and Iran focused on
keeping peace in the warring nation to decrease the chance of U.S. and Turkey involvement.
Most notably, Russia backed the pro-government faction and deployed troops from
the Commonwealth of Independent States to guard the Tajikistan-Afghan border. ]  All but 25,000
of the more than 400,000 ethnic Russians, who were mostly employed in industry, fled to Russia.
By 1997, the war had cooled down, and a central government began to take form, with peaceful
elections in 1999.
Tajikistan is officially a republic, and holds elections for the presidency and parliament,
operating under a presidential system. It is, however, a dominant-party system, where
the People’s Democratic Party of Tajikistan routinely has a vast majority in Parliament. Emomali
Rahmon has held the office of President of Tajikistan continuously since November 1994. The
Prime Minister is Kokhir Rasulzoda, the First Deputy Prime Minister is Matlubkhon Davlatov

and the two Deputy Prime Ministers are Murodali Alimardon and Ruqiya Qurbanova.
Tajikistan lacks a NSS. Instead, the leading security document for Dushanbe is the Law on
National Security of 28 June 2011. In addition to this document, Tajikistan has a Military
Doctrine of 2005 and a FPC of 2015. All security documents are disclosed. With reference to
national positions in its security papers, Tajikistan’s entries are similar to those of Kyrgyzstan.
Dushanbe also has close cooperation with Moscow, securing the survival of this political weak

state, and Tajikistan too lacks energy resources. Likewise, Tajikistan also highly values
cooperation in CSTO and SCO.

KYRGYZTAN

Kyrgyzstan is a nation defined by its natural beauty. Joyously unspoilt mountain scapes,
stark craggy ridges and rolling jailoos (summer pastures) are brought to life by semi-
nomadic, yurt-dwelling shepherds. Add to this a well-developed network of homestays
and visa-free travel, and it’s easy to see why Kyrgyzstan (officially the Kyrgyz Republic),
is the gateway of choice for many travellers in Central Asia. Kyrgyzstan’s recorded
history spans over 2,000 years, encompassing a variety of cultures and empires. Although geographically isolated by its highly mountainous terrain, which has helped preserve its ancient culture, Kyrgyzstan has been at the crossroads of several great civilizations as part of the Silk Road and other commercial and cultural routes. Though long inhabited by
a succession of independent tribes and clans, Kyrgyzstan has periodically fallen under
foreign domination and attained sovereignty as a nation-state only after the breakup of
the Soviet Union in 1991.

Since independence, the sovereign state has officially been a unitary parliamentary republic,
although it continues to endure ethnic conflicts ,revolts, economic troubles, transitional
governments and political conflict. Kyrgyzstan is a member of the Commonwealth of
Independent States, the Eurasian Economic Union, the Collective Security Treaty Organization,
the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation, the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, the Turkic
Council, the Türksoy community and the United Nations.

Ethnic Kyrgyz make up the majority of the country’s six million people, followed by significant

minorities of Uzbeks and Russians. Kyrgyz is closely related to other Turkic languages, although
Russian remains widely spoken and is an official language, a legacy of a century of
Russification. The majority of the population are non-denominational Muslims. In addition to its
Turkic origins, Kyrgyz culture bears elements of Persian, Mongolian, and Russian influence.

Kyrgyzstan has the most turbulent post-Soviet history among Central Asian states. Two
authoritarian leaders – Presidents Askar Akayev in 2005 and Kurmanbek Bakiyev in 2010 –
were overthrown in violent coups. Kyrgyzstan has subsequently stabilised, as reflected by
several peaceful electoral cycles and the absence of major political upheavals since 2010.
Kyrgyzstan’s domestic politics remain highly volatile, with 30 prime ministers having held
power since its independence in 1991. The North-South regional split and clan affiliations

remain important drivers of factional rivalries which have beset successive governments.
Endemic corruption contributes to the overall weakness of state institutions. Kyrgyzstan is firmly
anchored in Russia’s sphere of influence in Central Asia, evidenced by its membership in both
the Collective Security Treaty Organization and Eurasian Economic Union and a Russian
military presence (Kant airbase). However, China has been expanding its economic presence in
Kyrgyzstan and currently owns 40% of its debt. Chinese influence is likely to grow with the
construction of the Uzbekistan-Kyrgyzstan-China railroad, which has been agreed in principle.
The Kyrgyz economic outlook relies heavily on two factors: the state of the Russian economy

and production levels and export prices of gold. Potential expansion of sanctions on Russia will
damage Kyrgyzstan: we forecast a sharp reduction in employment opportunities for migrant
Kyrgyz workers in Russia and a fall in worker remittances from there. Russia is also a vital
export market.

KAZAKHSTAN

Kazakhstan is one of the major and largest republic of Central Asia. Comprising of significant
amount of natural resources like oil and gas reserves. The surroundings of Kazakhstan are also known as big brother of state (i.e) China and Russia. There is a huge difference in the population of these 3 countries. Russia has population 10 times more than the subject country whereas China wins the race in population by having 77 times more population than the subject. The geographical statistics of the country has many suprising features as It is one of the largest countries in Central Asia occupying 2930 kilometers from east to west and 960 kilometers from north to south. Capital city of Kazakhstan is Nursultan. Kazakhstan was formerly a part of republic of USSR but it got its freedom in December 16, 1991. Kazakhstan has major problem in exploitation of its natural resources which is caused by political problems of the state and by neighboring countries. That’s why Kazaks need to keep a check on their security in order to
protect their golden land and their rich resources.

The policies regarding security issues framed under security council provides security, i.e.
economic, social, environmental and financial security: providing high living standards for the
population; ensuring the quality of health and education; strengthening unity of the multi-
national society; protection of human rights and freedoms; preservation of the environment and
economic and energy diversification. Kazakh security force also covers interest of its capital in
international forum. The national interest of the country are as follows promote and intergrade

trade, strengthening peace by securing regional and global security. Its External values fames in.
such a way that the policies framed within the countries or for external affairs should comply
with International obligations and maintain co-operation and good relation with the neighbouring

countries.

If we analyse the security policies framed by Kazakh government, it majorly focuses on
establishing good relations with neighbouring countries and maintaining a good reputation
internationally. Kazakhstan is a collective active member of Collective security treaty
organisation (CSTO). CSTO is similar like NATO in Europe. After Russia, Kazakhstan is the
second largest troop contributor to the collective forces of the CSTO. Hence, Kazakhstan’s
contribution to the CSTO is one of the major policy lines of its national interest of strengthening
of peace through regional and global security.
CSTO comprises of central Asian states including Afghanistan.
CSTO held joint military drills, ‘Interaction 2014’, of its Collective Rapid Reaction
Force in Kazakhstan. The drills involved more than 3,000 participants, over 200 military vehicles

and around 30 aircrafts from Kazakhstan, Russia, Belarus, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Armenia.

TURKMENISTAN

Turkmenistan is located in central Asia. Turkmenistan is bordered by the Caspian Sea,Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan to the north, and Iran and Afghanistan to the south. Turkmenistan,
an independent state in Central Asia, is bordered by Afghanistan to the southeast, Iran to the southwest, Uzbekistan to the northeast, Kazakhstan to the northwest, and the Caspian Sea to the west. Turkmenistan, which achieved independence in 1991, is divided into five provinces (welayatlar), with a separate capital district for the capital city of Ashgabat. Turkmen is the official language of Turkmenistan, although Russian is still widely spoken in cities as well. The currency is the Turkmen new manat (TMT).
If we look upon the demographics of the country majority of Turkmenistan’s people are ethnic
Turkmens (85%) with large minorities of Uzbeks (5%) and  Russians (4%). Small minorities
include the Kazakhs, Tatars, Ukrainians, Kurds, Armenians, Azeris, Balochs and Pashtuns. The
people majorly holds the National Interest and hence Turkmens occupy majority of population

therefore their rival minority Tatars and Kazakhs face dominant effect by Turkmens.
Turkmenistan key natural resource is natural gas, petroleum, salt and sulphur. In order to secure
the geographical aspect of country saving its natural resource is important from external factors.

National legislation of Turkmenistan provides clear definition and forms legal framework in this
field. More particularly, the Law of Turkmenistan “On countering terrorism” stipulates legal and
organizational base for countering terrorism, authorities and responsibilities of state bodies,
social associations, other entities and competent authorities, as well as it defines guarantees for
legal and social protection of citizens involved in countering terrorism.Turkmenistan closely
coordinates its actions with the UN on countering terrorism, drug trafficking and other threats.
Strategic partnership between Turkmenistan and the UN is long-term, implemented in systemic
basis and similar principles and views on final outcome are shared. In this context, Turkmenistan
supports efforts of international community to create effective mechanism for countering
terrorism and is for full implementation of the UN Global Counter-Terrorism Strategy.

UZBEKISTAN

Republic of Uzbekistan (Uzbek: Ózbekiston Respublikasi, Ўзбекистон Республикаси), is
a doubly landlocked country in Central Asia and also a former Soviet Republic. The sovereign state is a secular, unitary constitutional republic, comprising 12 provinces, one autonomous republic, and a capital city. Uzbekistan is bordered by five landlocked countries: Kazakhstan to
the north; Kyrgyzstan to the northeast; Tajikistan to the southeast; Afghanistan to the south; and Turkmenistan to the southwest. Along with Liechtenstein, it is one of the world’s only
two doubly landlocked countries. Since Central Asia receives little attention in the Western press, one might not immediately make
the connection between ISIS – a predominantly Arab movement – and Turkic nations of the former Soviet Central Asia. A major advantage ISIS gains from recruiting Uzbeks and Kyrgyz
for terror acts in Turkey is the close linguistic and cultural traits they share with Turks: they
blend in more easily than Arabs. These characteristics plus a tumultuous history since the

collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 make Central Asia fertile ground for ISIS recruitment.
The Soviet collapse led to the last phase of the Afghan Civil War and the outbreak of conflict in
Tajikistan, hostilities that spawned the Taliban and the lesser known Islamic Movement of
Uzbekistan (IMU). The IMU’s stated goal was the replacement of the Karimov regime in
Uzbekistan with an Islamic caliphate ruled from the Fergana Valley. In order to combat the
initial effectiveness of the IMU, Central Asian states – Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan,
Tajikistan and Turkmenistan – restricted movement between the republics to those holding visas.
This did not stop the IMU from making dangerous raids into Kyrgyzstan from bases in Tajikistan
in 1999 and 2000 before having its fighting capacity severely limited by the U.S. invasion of
Afghanistan in 2001. Though the United States and its United Front allies destroyed the bulk of
the IMU, its legacy is twofold: 1) establishing the precedent of an Islamic alternative to Central
Asia’s authoritarian regimes and 2) the Central Asian authorities’ increasing repression of Islam
and political opposition in the region.

The Armed Forces of the Republic of Uzbekistan (Uzbek: Oʻzbekiston Respublikasi Qurolli
Kuchlari), is the name of the unified armed forces of Uzbekistan, consisting of a Ground
force, Air and Air Defense forces, National guard  a Frontier service. and a Navy. It is reported
to be the largest, and the strongest in Central Asia.
Uzbekistan and Russia signed a mutual defence pact in 2005,that will also result in closer
military cooperation. This marked a stark contrast to a few years earlier, when the US appeared
to be Uzbekistan’s favoured foreign friend, and relations with Russia were cooler.
The country also began professionalizing its military, an effort that has only limited success and
erratic government support. But even in Uzbekistan, these changes represent merely a modest
beginning and most of the benefits are concentrated in a few elite, higher readiness formations
rather than uniformly applied to the entire force. The Uzbek military is woefully inadequate, but
it is far superior to its neighbours. Uzbekistani military, by far, is alongside Kazakhstan, are both
wealthy and quickly developed arms.

 

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