The first education policy in India got introduced in 1968 then this policy was updated in 1986 led by Rajiv Gandhi, it was called for “special emphasis on the removal of disparities and to equalize educational opportunity”. And modified by the P.V Narsimha Rao government in 1992. But the first change of 21st century in education policy has been done in the year of 2020 after 34 years. The main aim of this policy is to universalize the education from pre-school to secondary level with 100 per cent Gross Enrolment Ratio in school education by 2030 and also aims to raise GER in higher education to 50 per cent by 2025. NEP will bring two crore out of school children back into the main stream.



Education is something which gives you immense knowledge, training, skills, morals, values and helps to see the world from a different perspective with a logical manner. A country’s growth and development lie upon the youth and if the majority citizen of that country is not well educated, then that country would always be slower in the race of development. Over the next decade, India will be the most populated country and for the development and future of India, it is essential to provide the highest quality of education to the youth of the country. As of till date, only 25% of the students enroll themselves for the higher education and rest of them drop out either due to their financial conditions or lack of interest in studies. In the perspective of India, the last ground breaking was The Right to Education by inserting Article 21A, in this amendment the government provided to the group of children from the age of 06 to 14 years free and compulsory education. India has about 845 universities and approximately 40,000 higher education institutions. Over 20% of the colleges have annually enrolment less than 100 students and only 4% of the colleges enrol more than 3,000 students every year due to the imbalance of region. Some of the reasons found for the fragmentation of the higher education system in India are-

  • There is no sufficient no. of available teachers and institutional autonomy to introduce innovations in HE to attract a, bunch of students.
  • No proper research in the most of the universities.
  • No introduction of innovations at most of the universities.
  • Early streaming of students into different disciplines.
  • Lack of sufficient mechanism for career management.


The purpose of introducing the National Education Policy 2020 is to broad the idea

of education in India and to provide the highest quality of education system in India.

Let’s know other objectives of the NEP-2020-

  • To compare the old Education Policy and New Education Policy 2020.
  • To highlight the policies of the newly accepted higher education system.
  • To predict the result of the NEP 2020 on Indian Education system.
  • To provide and identify innovations in new NEP 2020.




The current education was running from last 34 years and in the year 2020 the government introduced a new radical reform that could be seen implemented in forthcoming years. Starting from the Gurukul system of education to the British influenced the education system, many changes and gradation has been accepted, implemented in the education system. Many of us are one through the system that would be soon replaced, there are various prominent changes that could bring some expected positive outcomes.




India had a rich and well- established tradition of spreading knowledge and imparting education for centuries. There were at least 15 universities or Centre of higher learning in existence in ancient India such as, Takshashila, Nalanda, and Mithilia. However, the rich ethos of teachings and traditions persisted under “Gurukul” system.

Under the British Empire, the new era of establishment of universities with English dominance came into existence. After the independence, in 1994, a commission headed by the second president of Independent India Dr. S. Radhakrishnan, tried to revamp the old policies and tried to align them for the policies and tried to align them for the present and future. After a long gap of nearly 18 years, Kothari commission in 1966, National Education Policy 1968 and then in 1986, which was modified in 1992, Yashpal Committee of 1993, National Education policy 1968 and then in 1986, which was modified in 1992, Yashpal Committee of 1993, National Knowledge Commission of 2006, Tandon Committee of 2009 and 3rd Nep of 2020, were the major milestone in the evolution of educational reforms in India to shape the policies in correlation with the evolving challenges.




In 2015, India adopted what is called as “2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development (SD).” Under this agenda, Goal 4 (SDG 4) seeks to “ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities to all by 2030.” Based on five main foundation pillars, namely, access, equity, quality, affordability and accountability, NEP2020 has been aligned to 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.


As we progress and proceed more and more, toward, the information and communication technology (ICT) oriented and artificial intelligence-dependent society, the unskilled and semi-skilled level jobs, shall be taken over by machines and computer/mathematics and technical based jobs shall be more in demand. With growing challenges due to pollution, climatic alterations, crises in basic needs and most importantly, constant looming threat of pandemics, there shall be increased requirement of jobs in physics, chemistry, biology, social sciences and infectious diseases control in an integrated manner. All of this point to a need of multidisciplinary teaching/learning process.


Thus, it would seem to be prudent to make sure that the education must have less of “content” and more of thought process, critical analysis and problem solving approach. It should make, the learner, a more creative, innovative, adaptive and multidisciplinary thinker. The pedagogy should aim to make education more “experiential, holistic, integrated, inquiry-driven, discovery-oriented, learner-centered, discussion-based, flexible and, of course, enjoyable.” The curriculum must include basic arts, crafts, humanities, games, sports and fitness, languages, literature, culture and values, in addition to science and mathematics, to develop all aspects and capabilities of learners; and make education more well-rounded, useful and fulfilling to the learner. Education must build character, enable learners to be ethical, rational, compassionate and caring, while at the same time prepare them for “gainful, fulfilling employment.”[1,2] The fundamental and paradigm shift between NEP2020 and previous policies is, “revision and revamping” of all the aspects of educational structure including its regulation and governance, to create a new system, that is aligned with the 21st century aspired educational goals while building on the India’s traditional value system with more stress on developing the creative potential of each individual.



  1. NEP 2020




The fundamental principles both for the entire education system as well as individual institutions included in it are as follows:


Recognizing, identifying and fostering the unique capabilities of each student. This is to be achieved by sensitizing teachers as well as parents to promote each student’s holistic development in both academic and non-academic spheres


Achieving foundational literacy and numeracy by all students by Grade 3 as the highest priority.


Flexibility incorporated in the process of learning so that learners have the ability to choose their learning trajectories and programs and thereby choose their own paths in life according to their talents and interests.


No hard separations between arts and sciences, between curricular and extra-curricular activities, between vocational and academic streams, etc., to eliminate harmful hierarchies among and silos between different areas of learning

service, respect for public property, scientific temper, liberty, responsibility, pluralism, equality and justice.


Life skills such as communication, cooperation, teamwork and resilience.


Focused regular formative assessment for learning rather than the summative assessment that encourages today’s “coaching culture;”


Extensive use of technology in teaching and learning, removing language barriers, increasing access for Divyang students and educational planning and management


Teachers and faculty as the heart of the learning process – their recruitment, continuous professional development, positive working environments and service conditions


A “light but tight” regulatory framework to ensure integrity, transparency and resource efficiency of the educational system through audit and public disclosure while encouraging innovation through autonomy, good governance and empowerment



Actual policy

There are mainly four parts, the first three being various levels of learning followed by the actual implementation.


Part I – School education


Part II – Higher education


Part III – Other key areas of focus


Part IV – Making it happen (implementation).


Part I – School education

Ensuring universal access to all levels of schooling from pre-primary to Grade 12


The ultimate target to be achieved shall be 100% gross enrollment ratio (GER). To achieve this, following initiatives shall be undertaken


Provision of effective and sufficient infrastructure


Alternative and innovative education centers to minimize/reverse the dropout rate


Careful tracking of learning level of students for their universal participation


Continuous interaction between the teachers, counselors and specially trained social workers with the students and their parents for their continued attendance.


Early childhood care education


Emphasis on criticality of early years so as to ensure quality early childhood care and education for all the children between 3 and 6 years by 2025


A National Curricular and Pedagogical Framework for Early Childhood Care and Education for children up to age of 8 years by NCERT


All of these activities shall be a joint venture of Ministries of HRD, Women and Child Development, Health and Family Welfare and Tribal Affairs.


New curricular and pedagogical structure


Main aims shall be


“Experiential learning” to achieve the holistic development, with reduction in “content” to promote essential learning and critical thinking


Wider flexibility and choices of subjects for them to pursue the paths of their own liking, according to their talent and interests


No rigid boundary or separation between arts and science, curricular and extra-curricular activities, vocational and academic streams. All shall be integrated


Equal emphasis accorded to all subjects such as science, social sciences, art, languages, sports and mathematics


Design shall be


The present day 10+2 structure of school curricula is to be replaced by a 5+3+3+4 (total of 15 years) curricular structure corresponding to ages 3–8 (5) + 8–11 (3) + 11–14 (3) + 14–18 (4) years, respectively


This will bring the up until now, uncovered group of age group of 3–6 years under school curriculum, globally accepted as the crucial stage of mental faculty development


Three years of pre-school/Anganwadi + 12 years of schooling


Essentially, there shall be four stages:


Foundation stage: 5 years duration: Divided into two parts, namely; 3 years of pre-school/ Anganwadi, covering ages 3–6 years + 2 years of primary school in Grades 1–2, covering ages 6–8 years


Preparatory stage: 3 years duration: Grades 3–5, covering ages 8–11 years


Middle stage: 3 years duration: Grades 6–8, covering ages 11–14 years


Secondary stage: 4 years duration: Grades 9–12 in two phases, first phase – Grades 9 and 10, while second phase – Grades 11-12, covering ages 14–18 years.


NCERT shall be entrusted to develop a new and comprehensive National Curricular Framework for School Education (NCFSE 2020–21).


NCERT and SCERT shall develop high-quality textbooks and other materials. States will take the initiative in preparing their own curricula/textbooks incorporating their own local state flavor and material, with prioritizing the availability of these in all regional languages. Reducing the textbooks load and school bag weight shall be ensured.



Teacher recruitment and career path


Recruitment, promotions, assessment of Teachers will be carried out, through, a robust, transparent and merit based process. “National Professional Standards for Teachers (NPST)” will be developed by 2022, by National Council for Teacher Education (NCTE), in collaboration with NCERT, SCERTs. There shall be a review/revision in 2030 and every 10 years thereafter.


School governance


To be streamlined.


Accreditation and standard setting of school education


A State School Standards Authority will be set up. SCERTs shall develop, school quality assessment and accreditation framework. There shall be same assessment and accreditation criteria, benchmarks and processes for both public and private schools.


Vocational education


The target of at least 50% of learners being exposed to vocational education, both at school and the higher education level, has been planned to be achieved by 2015. The students are planned to be oriented with vocational education at middle and secondary school, which will then be integrated into higher education, through it is, polytechnics, even local industry. They will learn at least one vocation, with orientation to many. Ten days of internship between 6 and 8 grades with, local experts such as carpenters, potters and gardeners same program being followed every year during vacation in Grades 6–12.

The fundamental principles both for the entire education system as well as individual institutions included in it are as follows:


Recognizing, identifying and fostering the unique capabilities of each student. This is to be achieved by sensitizing teachers as well as parents to promote each student’s holistic development in both academic and non-academic spheres


The vision of this policy

An education system rooted in Indian ethos


That contributes directly to transforming India, that is Bharat, sustainably into an equitable and vibrant knowledge society


By providing high-quality education to all and thereby making India a global knowledge superpower.


The curriculum and pedagogy of our institutions must develop among the students a deep sense of respect toward.


The fundamental duties and constitutional values.


Bonding with one’s country.


A conscious awareness of one’s roles and responsibilities in a changing world.


To instill among the learners a deep-rooted pride in being Indian.


Not only in thought but also in spirit, intellect and deeds.


To develop knowledge, skills, values and dispositions that support.


Responsible commitment to human rights.


Sustainable development and living.


Global well-being, thereby reflecting a truly global citizen.


“Experiential learning” to achieve the holistic development, with reduction in “content” to promote essential learning and critical thinking.


Wider flexibility and choices of subjects for them to pursue the paths of their own liking, according to their talent and interests.


No rigid boundary or separation between arts and science, curricular and extra-curricular activities, vocational and academic streams. All shall be integrated.


Equal emphasis accorded to all subjects such as science, social sciences, art, languages, sports and mathematics.


Design shall be


The present day 10+2 structure of school curricula is to be replaced by a 5+3+3+4 (total of 15 years) curricular structure corresponding to ages 3–8 (5) + 8–11 (3) + 11–14 (3) + 14–18 (4) years, respectively.


Three years of pre-school/Anganwadi + 12 years of schooling.


Other key areas of focus

Professional education: Health-care education


All stand-alone universities be it, agricultural, health sciences, legal, technical shall transform themselves as multidisciplinary and holistic education providing HEIs


All institutions offering either professional or general education will aim to organically evolve into institutions/clusters offering both seamlessly and in an integrated manner by 2030


Health-care education needs to be re-envisioned so that the duration, structure and design of the educational programs need to match the role requirements that graduates will play


Students will be assessed at regular intervals on well-defined parameters primarily required for working in primary care and in secondary hospitals


Given that people exercise pluralistic choices in health care, our health-care education system must be integrative meaning thereby that all students of allopathic medical education must have a basic understanding of Ayurveda, Yoga and Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha and Homeopathy and vice versa


There shall also be a much greater emphasis on preventive health care and community medicine in all forms of health-care education.


Technology in education


An autonomous body National Educational Technology Forum (NETF) will be created to provide a platform for free exchange of ideas on the use of technology for










Technology-based education platforms such as “Diksha/Swayam” will be better integrated.


Online and digital education


New circumstances and realities require new initiatives. The recent epidemics/pandemics necessitate that the alternative modes of quality education are utilized whenever and wherever traditional and in-person modes of education are not possible


Need to carry out carefully designed and appropriately scaled pilot studies to determine advantages/disadvantages


In the meantime, the existing digital platforms and ongoing ICT-based educational initiatives must be optimized and expanded to meet the current and future challenges in providing quality education for all


Teachers require suitable training and development to be effective online educators, as good teacher in a traditional classroom may not be a good teacher in an online classroom


Aside from changes required in pedagogy, online assessments also require a different approach, with multiple challenges to conducting online examinations at scale, including limitations on the types of questions that can be asked in an online environment, handling network and power disruptions and preventing unethical practices

Further, unless online education is blended with experiential and activity-based learning, it will tend to become a screen-based education with limited focus on the social, affective and psychomotor dimensions of learning.


The Recommended key initiatives


Pilot studies for online education involving appropriate agencies – To evaluate the benefits of integrating education with online education while mitigating the drawbacks such as, student device addiction, most preferred formats of e-content


Digital infrastructure – There is a need to invest in creation of open, interoperable, evolvable, public digital infrastructure in the education sector that can be used by multiple platforms and point solutions, to solve for India’s scale, diversity, complexity and device penetration


Online teaching platform and tools – Existing e-learning platforms such as SWAYAM and DIKSHA will be extended to provide teachers with a structured, user-friendly, rich set of assistive tools for monitoring progress of learners. Tools, such as two-way video and two-way audio interface for holding online classes, are a real necessity as the present pandemic has shown


Virtual labs – Existing e-learning platforms such as DIKSHA, SWAYAM and SWAYAMPRABHA will also be leveraged for creating virtual laboratories so that all students have equal access to quality practical and hands-on experiment-based learning experiences


Training and incentives for teachers – Teachers will undergo rigorous training in learner-centric pedagogy and on how to become high-quality online content creators themselves using online teaching platforms and tools


 Making it happen (implementation)

  1. Strengthening Central Advisory Board of Education
  2. Resignation of MHRD as Ministry of Education
  3. Financial and other infrastructural support.



NEP2020 has been unveiled, with lot of thought process, optimism, as well as fanfare by Government of India. The proposed delivery of education is extremely broad based, circumspect and all-encompassing. There are no specific compartments, boundaries and divisions. The predicted timespan is significantly prolonged, with nearly 20 + years of duration envisaged. It starts at the grass root; school level goes through the graduate and even higher level of education. Main thrust as contemplated is on multidisciplinary, holistic and broad-based education. There is also main emphasis on vocational education, which is supposed to start earlier in school phase itself. The policy is mainly divided in to three parts of delivery as per the level of the learner and fourth part as the ways to make it happen. The levels are school, higher education and other areas, specifically professional education.

At school level, the old 10+2 system shall be replaced with new 5+3+3+4. More stress on the local/Indian languages, more help to SEDGs and teachers to be assisted in self-improvement and thus upgradation.

At university/HEI level, no single stream/discipline university shall remain in existence but transformed into multidisciplinary, holistic delivery systems. A single nomenclature, “University,” shall prevail. There shall be MERUs, research shall be on forefront. A single body National Research F shall be the controlling body. There shall be HECI to govern the higher education. Four aspects, namely, regulation – will be under NHERC, accreditation by NAC, funding by HEGC and education by GEC with the help of NHEQF.


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