Concept propounded by Karl Marx in the context of socialism is known as Marxism. Marx had named his theory as Scientific Socialism, because instead of being mere ideal, hypothetical and imaginary he had tried to search the form of society and the laws of its evolution like a scientist. The Chief doctrines of Karl Marx
Hegal, an associate of Marx described all the historical charges are terms of thesis, antithesis and synthesis. He believed that an idea gives birth to a counter idea and then mutually contradictory ideas give birth to a new element which can be termed as synthesis. Where as dialectical method was applied by Hegal in the domain of ideas Marx adopted it to explain the material world.
2.Historical Materialism and Class War
Marxism postulates that as other changes in the world take place according to the laws of dialectical materialism, the activities of human history were also determined by material influences. This theory of materialistic conception of history starts with the belief that economic ideas are the basis of all political, legal and social activities.
In the context of Historical Materialism, the most important is the concept of Class War. Marx believes that in all times in history the forces of production clash with each other.
At every stage of history there are broadly two classes – One which owns the means of production and the other which works on it. He believes that history presents nothing but a record of a war between mutually opposed classes.
3.Theory of Surplus Value
Marxism believes that the value of a commodity depends on the amount of labour put in it. In fact all real economic value is created by the human labour alone. The labour is the real creator of the value but the capitalist pays him only a part of his due. After the payment of the wage to the labour; the balance major part of the worker’s due is grabbed by the capitalist. In fact
Surplus Value is the difference between the value of a commodity and the actual payment made to the labour, which in taken by the capitalist.
4.Law of Concentration of Capital
Marx was of the opinion that in this way the rich become richer and the poor become poorer. In fact the very core of capitalism is that capital in the hands of a few people. This firm belief of Marx led him to postulate the concept of Concentration of capital. He further said that capital in the hands of a few goes on increasing rapidly and on the other hand have-nots are progressively pauperized.
5.Dictatorship of the Proletariat
The Proletariat means the masses which are landless and property less and which has been ruthlessly suppressed by the capitalist class.
Karl Marx was very clear that as a result of exploitation and oppression proletariat will over throw the capitalists and establish their dictatorship for some time. In the transitional period, the proletariat will take all possible steps to seize all capitalist property.
6.Stateless and Classless society
With the emergence of Dictatorship of the Proletariat the destruction of capitalism will begin. Naturally the society which was earlier divided into hostile classes will gradually become a class less one.
The ultimate goal to be achieved by Marxism is in fact the establishment of a classless society. When classless society is established the process of withering away of the State will begin. With the total disappearance of the state the era of Marxist Socialism will start.
Critics disagree with several concepts of Marxism, but it is also true that Marxism has appealed to millions of people around the globe. A large portion of the world has accepted the ideas propounded by Marxism. It occupies a very significant place in the history of Political Philosophy.
Marx postulated a systematic socialist concept. Critics disagree with several concepts of Marxism but Marxism has an indelible impact on Political Philosophy.