Issue of Poverty and Unemployment in India by Bishal Basak


India is a rapidly developing nation and it is becoming technologically advanced day by day but the issue that is still continuing since independence is the widespread and rampant problem of poverty and unemployment which has deepen its root in last few decades. In India we can distinctly observe that the 2.5% of India’s population only pay taxes to run the whole economy and with this we can clearly see that the condition of the society where people either have no jobs or the job that they are having is of very less commission. For the enhancement of economic growth, the tax system along with the education opportunity plays a vital role as education helps a person to acquire a knowledge about the economy, development, poverty etc., and an appropriate and smooth tax structure helps an individual to pay the taxes with ease. India accounts for the largest number of poor persons with amounts to nearly 300 million and among them are being compelled to live in servile poverty due to socio-economical cause. The absolute cause behind poverty is increasing population day by day and the government is unable to feed the population sufficiently. Prodigious population growth and law development is the cause for high level of illiteracy, poor health care facilities and shortage of financial resources. In addition to, with the increase in population of the nation at a higher rate the per capita income decreases which further leads to unemployment and poverty.

With an estimation it can be restated that the population of India will rise to 1.5 billion by the year 2050 which will cause more unemployment and lower income among all. This is the grass-root economic knowledge that if increasing in demand will not be matched by the increasing in supply in proportion to the demand, the cost of basic commodities would see an increase with the result the poor would further face the plight of poverty. Then the government of India had to face the extreme anger of the people which might cost suffering in politics. The informality of the Indian economy has offered ascend to dormancy and under-work whose information is hard to be gathered even by the administration organizations. Owing to the fact that India’s semi metropolitan and country economy is bothered that this rate is more segmented. Thus, National Commission on Enterprises in sloppy division appraises that there are around 80 percent populace in India which barely approaches all day work and henceforth, ought to be considered as a real part of the jobless. This has made a troubling circumstance for the approach producers and the investigator regarding how to adapt to the occasional joblessness, and that to when the youngster work is as yet being a reality with greater part of kids being utilized in stone cutting, metal creation, lock making, record making enterprises. At first destitution was just expected to be restricted in rustic territories. Despite the fact that in India individuals from both remote area and metropolitan part are experiencing issue of neediness. This was one of the significant grounds due to which Rangaranjan council considered provincial and metropolitan destitution in discrete bin instead of in same one as done before by Tendulkar board. Salary neediness being subset of destitution can be characterized as shortage of enough cash so as to give food, garments or safe house. The general damaging effect of destitution incorporates more significant introduction to natural infection, for example, tobacco, ailing health and liquor other than it scarcely any more extreme issues are less parental inclusion in school, unnecessarily swarmed and boisterous living plans less intellectual incitement, instable private, negative, brutal and relentless child rearing, presentation to forceful friend pressure, family weakness and conflicts, un-adequate parental examination, need of passionate help. In addition to metropolitan zones difficulties are in various structure for instance, to find a new line of work one has to have certain abilities which for the most part the transients from country territories discover intense to pick up. This further intensifies their conditions. Their speculation misses the mark and the ruthless pattern of destitution continues. It is hard for metropolitan individuals to discover sufficient lodging with an appropriate security and sanitization without a bona fide pay. In spite of that legitimate medical services and instruction openings are extremely restricted. Crime and maliciousness rate are additionally exceptionally high in metropolitan settings than in rustic ones, compromising the authority of law authorization and the true serenity of city occupants.


India had made many programs and schemes and to provide employment to the poor so they can earn daily wage since 1980s. However, some of the schemes in the past decade to reduce poverty include:

Jawahar Rozgar Yojana: This Yojana was first executed on a pastoral scale. In this scheme each and every village was to be covered by Panchayat Raj institution. The village will get assistance and other supports from the District Rural Development Authority. All the expenditure will be born by Central and State Government in 80:20 Ratio.

In this program the main target is to provide 100 days guarantee employment for all the below poverty line people. The primary target of this scheme is on most five backward states of India like Jharkhand, Bihar, Odisha, West Bengal, Karnataka. FHFI looks to help and help the network and inhabitants’ associations in simulating the Indian specialists to offer least social help in the areas mentioned above.

  1. Food Security Bill (2013): The provision of this law provides that beneficiaries will get 5 kilogram of grains per person per month, including rice at Rs. three per kilogram, wheat at two rupees per kg and coarse grains at one rupee per kg.
  2. Farm Loan Waiver (2016-2018): Just before the State elections 2018 in Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan and Chhattisgarh, the government waived farmers’ loans thus freeing them of the debt they were facing. This step was formerly taken by Telangana or in other states in 2016. This step was applauded as well as condemned as it was a short time redress from the debts, it doesn’t provide a long-term solution to the main problem within reach.
  3. 10% Quota to Economically Weaker Sections (2019): The Government of India announced 10% reservation for the economically weaker groups in general category on 7 January 2019. The one who earns less than 8 lakh Rupees per year and doesn’t have land ownership of more than 5 acres will be considered eligible to avail this quota said Union Minister.


Neediness as referenced before is essentially a social capacity. That is the reason Justice B.P. Jeevan Reddy who was a leading light in the judgment which is remarkably known as Indra Sawhney case or Mandal case giving 27 percent reservation to other in reverse classes in focal government occupations, says that backwardness is typically social besides backwardness could recognized with position, occupation and so forth however one be under a compulsion to be made a decision about poor or in reverse based on their social position. The Supreme Court in Ashok Kumar Thakur case in 2008 embraced the above perspective on Justice B.P. Jeevan Reddy. Destitution in this manner, can be eliminated from the general public not through pecuniary measures however through the support of the network in a manner where ascertainable wrongs are rectified and the poor independent of their position and beliefs view the aspect of the day and are authorized by the state and the general public to satisfy themselves of the apparent hordes of chances made approachable by the state and society. It is just through this measure poor people can be made to join the standard of improvement contributing their value to the country building.


In order to win against poverty, we need to provide proper education, employments, opportunities and noteworthy investments to be made which certainly eradicates poverty. Government needs to bring technological & futuristic measures that will enhance the growth in an overall manner. The government have to bring rectification in policies and laws to ensure steady growth.


  • Joynal Abdin, Fighting Unemployment and Poverty, SSRN Electronic Journal (2017)
  • P Yadav, right to education (Mittal Publications) (2014)
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  • Anto Rozarina. N. Junofy, A Study on Poverty and Hunger in India, Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences (2013)
  • Study of poverty in India | International Journal of Current Research,
  • Heidi Watkins, Child abuse (Greenhaven Press) (2009)



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