INTRODUCTION TO HUMAN RIGHTS
Our moral principles and norms are human rights, that are protected in municipal as well as International Law. They are absolute and apply to all human beings, regardless of their age, origin, location, language, or any other status. Everywhere they are applicable and at every time and always be the same for everyone.
Human Rights are highly influenced by International Law and regional institutions. After the second world war, the basic idea was developed for human rights, with the adoption of the Universal Declaration of human rights (UDHR) in Paris by United Nations General Assembly in 1948. It was basically a concept of Natural Right which was a part of Medieval Natural Law.
UNIVERSAL DECLARATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS
It’s a non-binding declaration that was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly. It came after the second world war, and was there to promote several humans, civil, economic, and social rights, asserting these rights are part of the “foundation of freedom, justice, and peace in the world”.
Members of the Human Rights Commission were the main framework of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. The members did not agree at one instance that is on the form of such a bill of rights, and whether, or how, it should be enforced. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights is the priority soon and there are treaties related to UDHR.
The UN is the only multilateral government agency that is universally accepted by international jurisdiction for universal human and their rights legislation. In UN all have advisory roles that are related to the United Nations Security Council, with numerous committees which are within the United Nation that have responsibilities for safeguarding different human rights treaties.
HUMAN RIGHTS COUNCIL
In 2005, the human rights council was founded, where it mandated the investigations for human rights violations. Out of 193 members, only 47 are allowed to sit on the council that is elected by the simple majority in a secret ballot of the United Nations General Assembly. They can serve up to six years only and they can have their membership suspended for gross human rights abuses. Based in Geneva and usually meets three times a year, with some additional meetings that are called upon for urgent situations only.
Sometimes United Nations Council refers cases to the International Criminal Court also even if the issue being referred to is outside the normal jurisdiction of the International Criminal Court.
STATE AND NON-STATE ACTORS
NGOs, political parties, companies, some informal groups, and individuals are known as Non-state Actors. Human rights abuses can be committed by Non-State Actors, but they are not related to human rights law like International Humanitarian Law which applies to all individuals.
Human rights are very important rights that are given to us but citizens don’t know about human rights that belong to us. So they are unable to get justice. Human rights have been spread widely in International laws also and got recognition to it with the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.