Cloning word originally comes from the Greek which is referred as “making an identical copy”. Cloning is widely used in the field of biology, it is just a DNA molecule of cells with genetically identical structures which is known as clone.
There are many different kinds of cloning available but the controversial one is human cloning. Human cloning brings many issues together: legal, political, ethical & religious. Creating genetically identical to another one has brought social chaos in our world.
The idea of human cloning first came when Scotland’s sheep clone named Dolly. The incident then made people believe that the same method can be applied on human beings also. Further, scientists used the method of nuclear transplantation and successfully produced a clutch of tadpoles’ clones. In the 20th Century, Nobel Laurette Joshua Lederberg advocated cloning and genetic engineering.
The first human clone was created by advanced cell technology in 1998 by using somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). The first human cloned was made by taking of nucleus from man’s leg cell and was induced in a cow’s egg after removing the nucleus from egg.
Cloning is like unprecedented control over the genetic identical of another individuals. Indeed, the concept of control over genetic is brought as to encourage to those who are desirable and discourage to those who are undesirable.
Cloning is deeply related to legal and ethical view. It is said that cloning is a breach of fundamental right of every individuals because every individual have uniqueness with respect to their identity which help to live in our society. But, cloning is somewhere effecting that identity of individual and human being getting feared of losing their identity.
We can related it with recent incident of Iran, Iran has developed cloning technology without proper taking care of legal framework which lead to abuse of scientific research, which was illegal. Thus, to protect from such incident we need appropriate legal ethical knowledge and it must be approved from law.
Human cloning is all interrelated to laws and ethics. According to research human refer to follow ethics and laws rather than emotions. It is expected that in future human cloning may improve, but it would still face ethical problem from people and diverse religion.
Cloning was first performed in 1900 by a German embryologist Hans Spemann and it was first performed on a salamander embryo. Later, Spemann gave the theory of nuclear transfer which resulted very useful and further that theory was used by American scientists Robert Briggas and Thomas J. King in the year 1952. They use the embryonic cells of the frog named Rana pippins to generate clone tadpoles.
With the changing generation technologies also changed, they become more advanced. In 1970 scientist made possible to create transgenic clones with the help of DNA from other organisms. Later, in the 1980, mammals were cloned, sheep was the first mammal which was cloned.
Ian Wilmut was a British Biologist and he is famous cloning experiment, Wilmut was the first person who first generate a cloned sheep by nuclear transfer and that cloned sheep was named by ‘Dolly’.
Further, nuclear transfer method was got groomed up and named as somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). After the success of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), it gave hope to the world of making cloned humans and it made possible to think broader in the field of cloning.
After the Dolly was cloned successfully, many of other animals were cloned by SCNT. But, when it comes on human cloning it always has a difficulties.
The first human clone was made in 1998 by using somatic cell nuclear transfer. The experiment was; a nucleus was taken from man’s leg cell and it was inserted into a cow’s egg after removing Nucleus. But, the embryo was destroyed in 12 days. After that, there were many experiment done but none was successful. In 2018, the first successful cloning of human was done and was reported that two female born names Zhong Zhong and Hua Hua.
After all these successful experiment, society didn’t accepted the human cloning because ethical, social, legal and religious values play important role in deciding whether a person might be allowed to be cloned. Our society have some ethics and people follow the legal system and all these are absent in human cloning. There are no law regarding clones and people fear of losing their identity that is why today human cloning is not so widely successful.
The production of human cloned embryo for the stem cells is another issue which is related to embryo protection. Although it raises questions in terms of patent laws. There is no specific national or international regulation in this field but due to popularization of research and increased practice in the field of cloning, it is necessary to take international regulation into consideration
Despite being no specific binding regulation on human cloning at international level or there are no statutory bodies, indirectly it prohibits the practice where there is a violation of dignity; because
Human cloning create a fetus in people and they think of losing their freedom and identity. Such reproductive cloning of human shall not be permitted.
This prohibition is mentioned in article 11 of the universal declaration on the human genome and human rights which is adopted by UNESCO. As General Assembly of the united nation also adopted the declaration on human cloning which says that all member states of United Nation should take responsibility to not practice any type of human cloning including any medical purposes.
When it comes on ethical values than there is a greater disagreement prevails for making human clone or doing researches. We must needed a consent of that person who will give their cell or embryo because human cloning can put genetic diseases which will cause a serious problem.
In the world there are two type of people present, the one who promote cloning because according to them modern generation is master of their own business and they have full right/ freedom to take decision of rights and wrongs. On the other hand second type of people opposes the human cloning because they think there individuality will lose, their identity will snatch which will directly affect to their dignity and their freedom will also violate so with all these thought they oppose of human cloning.
In Supreme Court of United State, there was case called Eisenstaedt vs Baird, there it was talked about relating to reproductive freedom and said “if the right to privacy means anything it is the right of the individual marriage or single, to be free from unwanted governmental intrusion into matters so affecting the person as a decision, whether to bear or beget a child”.
Cloning is banned due to many ethical and legal issues. Moreover, it faces many emotional reactions, psychological, and social issues as well. Cloning is useful as well as harmful also, it all depend on how the world sees them. If society accept the human cloning then it will good impact and bad impact too.
Reproductive and therapeutic cloning could be considered immoral both from the bioethical as well as the legal and religious perspective. For being allowed by all society there must be a good researchers who can make better human cloning who can become ethically and legally compatible to stand in the world.