Honour Killing

There is nothing honourable in honour killings and they are nothing but barbaric and brutal murders by bigoted persons with feudal minds,” – Justice Markandey Katju

The Perceived Honour

Honour is referred to as the perceived pride and status of the community which can be religion-based, caste-based or sub-caste-based.

Caste Based Honour:

The upper caste, being upper, always wishes to dominate the lower classes and enjoys the superior status. This honour gets challenged if any relationship gets formed between the two classes.

Religion Based Honour:

Religious differences among people pave the way to several forms of violence such as riots, hate crimes and also killing their children who wish to marry in among different religions.

Gotra Based Honour:

Gotra refers to the lineage of a person. It is believed in India that people of the same gotra having the same lineage, are brothers and sisters. This is why, when a girl and a boy plan to get married and are found out to be of the same gotra, they are strongly opposed by the community.

What Is Honour Killing

Honour Killing is the term given to the killing of men or women in the name of honour. The word ‘honour killing’ was introduced by a Dutch scholar Ane Nauta, in 1978, to distinguish such killings from other killings in the family and society. It includes crimes such as homicide, murder and assault. In such crimes, the perpetrator is within the family or a group belonging to a particular clan/lineage in a community.

Such crimes are commenced to instil a sense of fear within the people of the society and to ensure they adhere to the patriarchal norms. The victims of honour killing are mostly females and the perpetrators are mostly males. The sanctions for such acts of violence against the females of the community are given since the females are believed to bring dishonour to the community.

The primary reason behind all crimes committed under the umbrella of honour is the conventional, narrow-minded and rigid thought process of several communities. It had all started from the core patriarchal systems in societies – men formulated the traditional practices and men took it upon themselves to ensure that future generations adhere to their traditions. It can be seen that the intolerance of the Indian upper caste to the inter-caste matrimonial/pre-marital partnership of women is the main cause of honour killings.

But presently, it is witnessed that a significant number of women support their husbands/fathers or respective elders in sanctioning the killings of those disobeying the traditional norms or disturbing the morality of the community.

The disturbance can be caused by a range of reasons:
from inappropriate dressing sense to engaging in sexual acts with the same gender. Factors such as, challenging the rigidity of the elders; scenarios such as wearing western clothes, mocking/insulting the culture of the community, smoking/drinking, getting along with males of different communities or villages, are all acts that challenge the rigidity of highly conventional and orthodox elders.

They consider all such acts as shameful and a disgrace to the community – the result of which is an intense punishment to the one bringing such shame. It triggers the sentiments of the community to the extent of putting the life of the disturbing person in danger.

Causes Behind Honour Killing

Reasons for the term brought dishonour can be multiple such as:

Refusing for an arranged marriage:

in India, many communities believe in ‘arranging’ the marriage for their children. Especially in the case of females, all the elders of the family prefer and are usually strict regarding selecting the girl’s husband. Hence the family does not accept and tolerate the girl rejecting such marriage proposals.

Being a victim of sexual assault or even rape – any female who becomes a victim of such heinous offences is considered to bring shame to the family and is therefore sanctioned to be killed to get rid of the societal shame.


even from an abusive/torturous husband – a woman is considered to be of service to her husband in such communities because of the patriarchal setup and hence she cannot seek or even mention the idea of ending her marriage.


A woman, who is not even allowed to question the legitimacy of her marriage is never pardoned for engaging in any form of adultery.

The woman is never allowed to raise her voice, question or challenge the values and beliefs of the society and is only expected to follow them. In cases where she refuses to follow the tradition, she is hated, abused and eventually killed. The killings are sanctioned by elders to protect the honour of the community as the woman is considered to bring dishonour. The women are victimized by their own family which leads to psychological trauma since it’s not some friend or acquaintance but her family members.

Why is any other form of punishment not considered, instead of killing?

Members of khap panchayats, elders of the community or family members of the deceased; resort to sanction the killing of the individual to:

  • set an example in the society
  • deter those inspired from committing any shameful acts
  • ensure the purity of the community
  • prevent the formation of any impure legacy
  • maintain the high status/honour in society


Origin Of Honour Crimes

Honour killings are not a new phenomenon. The origins of Honour Killing can be traced back to millennia. In historical records, we find such cases occurring in 1200 BC in the Hammurabi tribes and 6000 BC in the Assyrian tribes. In ancient times, women’s chastity was considered as the honour of the community.

In India, from a historical time, the varna system has contributed to the development of distinct groups. Class division and standards have always been dominated by men. This has led to men still leading, instructing and influencing women and children in their respective families.

Casteism is entrenched in Indian communities and is a major cause of honour killing. Marriage in a lower caste is strictly prohibited for two main reasons; first, status – caste reflects the status of the family in society, and status would decline if there were some kind of association with a lower caste. Second, the lineage – union between the lower and upper castes will break the family lineage. No member of the upper caste wants a future generation who does not belong to the same family and ultimately devalues the legacy.

Trend Of Honour Killing In India

Honour killings are primarily found in highly patriarchal cultures. Most honour-based crimes are heinous in nature to create fear in the community regarding the consequences of tarnishing the community’s honour.

According to the National Crime Record Bureau’s crime report of 2018 and 2019, there were 53 murders with motive recorded as honour killing and most of which are reported as a suicide. The 2019 Crime Statistics Report by NCRB records honour killings in the following states: Punjab, Gujarat, Haryana, Uttarakhand, Rajasthan, Andhra Pradesh and Arunachal Pradesh.1

There have been several cases that have led to legal advances resulting in a changed legal perspective towards honour-based crime.

In the classic case of Manoj and Babli from the hinterlands of Haryana, the two were brutally murdered by Babli’s family in Jun’07. It was ordered by the khap panchayat since they were marrying in the same gotra. In Mar’10, a Karnal district court judge stated that:
This court has gone through sleepless nights and tried to put itself in the shoes of the offender. The Khap panchayat has functioned contrary to the constitution, ridiculed it and have become a law unto themselves.2

This particular case highlighted the sphere of honour killings in India and the dominance of khap panchayats in personal matters, especially those relating to the conduct of women in society.

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