The Fundamental Duties were added in 1976, upon recommendation of the Swaran Singh Committee, that was constituted by Indira Gandhi just after the declaration of national emergency, to study and amend the constitution.

This committee was under the Chairmanship of Sardar Swaran Singh, India’s longest-serving union cabinet minister. Based on his recommendations, the government incorporated several changes to the Constitution including the Preamble, through the 42nd Amendment, which included the fundamental duties under the Indian Constitution.

However, by the 86th Amendment in 2002, the original 10 duties were then increased to 11, under Article 51A, Part IV-A of the Constitution of India. The 10 fundamental duties are as follows:

  • To oblige with the Indian Constitution and respect the National Anthem and Flag
  • To cherish and follow the noble ideas that inspired the national struggle for freedom
  • To protect the integrity, sovereignty, and unity of India
  • To defend the country and perform national services if and when the country requires
  • To promote the spirit of harmony and brotherhood amongst all the people of India and renounce any practices that are derogatory to women
  • To cherish and preserve the rich national heritage of our composite culture
  • To protect and improve the natural environment including lakes, wildlife, rivers, forests, etc.
  • To develop scientific temper, humanism, and spirit of inquiry
  • To safeguard all public property
  • To strive towards excellence in all genres of individual and collective activities

The 11th fundamental duty which was added to this list is:

  • To provide opportunities for education to children between 6-14 years of age, and duty as parents to ensure that such opportunities are being awarded to their child.

The 11 fundamental duties look at the crisis in Indian society and become a tool for straightening it out. They serve as a source of protection for the liberty of the people.


There was a judgment by the Supreme Court which said that if someone had genuine religious obligations, that can be placed above patriotism, then no one can force them to sing the National Anthem.

It is a citizen’s responsibility to realize that it is in their own interest to perform their duties and discharge their 134 legal and constitutional obligations whole-heartedly because only by doing so, individually, can they help the growth of the democratic republic collectively.

Citizens are expected to behave in accordance with the ideal code of conduct parallel to the 11 fundamental duties and no legal action can be initiated for non-performance. With the independence of India, dawned the “Ganatantra Raj”, which made each of us responsible for the happiness and welfare of our people.


1.Fundamental Rights are the freedoms guaranteed by the constitution which can’t be taken away from a citizen. AND Fundamental Duties are the legal responsibilities bestowed upon the citizens to perform.

2. Fundamental Rights are considered to be the normative rules of liberty and freedom for every citizen in order to achieve a harmonious and a free lifestyle. AND Fundamental Duties are the moral responsibilities of all the citizens that need to be performed by them in order to achieve prosperity and uphold the unity of the nation.


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