The Reserve Bank of India was established in the year 1935 in accordance with the Reserve Bank of India Act, 1934. The Reserve Bank of India is the central Bank of India entrusted with the multidimensional role. It performs important monetary functions from issue of currency note to maintenance of monetary stability in the country. Initially the Reserve Bank of India was a private share holder’s company which was nationalized in 1949. Its affairs are governed by the Central Board of Directors appointed by the Government of India. Since its inception the Reserve Bank of India had played an important role in the economic development and monetary stability in the country.
Functions of Reserve bank of India
Banker to Government
The Reserve Bank of India accepts and makes payment on behalf of Central Government. It carries out its exchange, remittance, management of public debt and other banking function of the Central Government. The Central Government entrusts its money, remittance, exchange and banking transactions in India with the Reserve Bank of India. It deals in repo or reverse repo.
Right to Issue Bank note
The Reserve Bank of India has the sole right to issue bank notes in India. The bank notes are legal tender guaranteed by the Central Government. The issue of bank note is conducted by a separate department called issue department. The Central Government on the recommendation of Central Board specifies denomination of bank notes including discontinuance of bank notes. The Central Government approves design, form and material of Bank notes on consideration of recommendations of the Central Board.
Formulates Banking policy
The Reserve is empowered to formulate banking policy in the interest of the public or depositors banking policy in relation to advances and provide direction on the purpose of the advances, margins to be maintained in a secured advances, the maximum amount of advance may be made, the rate of interest, terms and conditions for advances or guarantees may be given.
The banks listed in second schedule and non schedule banks shall maintain a cash reserve ratio with the Reserve bank of India with a view to securing the monetary stability in the country. It provides loans and advances in foreign currency to scheduled Banks and to other financial institution. It purchases, sells or discount any bill of exchange or promissory note or makes a loan or advances to schedule bank.
Depositor Awareness and Education
The Reserve Bank of India has constituted a fund called “Depositor Education and Awareness Fund.” The fund is utilized for the promotion of depositors’ interest and other purposes in the interest of the depositor.
Regulation and Management of Foreign Exchange
The Reserve Bank of India is empowered to regulate, prohibit, and restrict dealing in foreign exchange. It issues license to banks and other institution to act as the authorized agency in the foreign exchange market.
The Reserve Bank of India is empowered to grant license to commence banking business in India, including the power to cancel a license granted to a banking company.A petition was filed under Article 226 of the Constitution, challenging the constitutional validity of section 22 of the Banking Companies Act, 1949. Section 22 empowers, Reserve Bank of India to grant license to Banks and banks which were already in existence on the commencement of the Act have to apply for license before the expiry of six months from commence