Forest Laws

Definition of ‘Forest’ (as defined in Indian forest act, 1927) is an area occupied by the Government for conservation and management of biological and ecological resources is called a forest.

The constitutional status of the forest:

  • The State attempted to take necessary steps for the protection and improvement of the environment and for safely guarding the forest and wildlife.
  • Every Indian citizen has the right to protect and develop the natural environment like lakes, rivers, forests and wildlife and should show kindness towards the living creatures.

Types of Forest Land under the Indian Forest Act, 1927

Private Forests

The private forests are those which are not occupied by the Government. According to the Indian Forests Act, 1927, the Government is commanded to regulate timber cutting and cultivation etc. in private forest land and also allow the state government to capture the forest land for the public purposes.

Public Forests

Public forests are of three types:

  • Reserved Forests
  • Village Forests
  • Protected Forests

The Forest (Conversation) Act, 1980


The Forest Conservation Act, 1980 is a Central Act of Parliament which conserves the forest. Section 2 of the act makes a provision of a prior approval of the Central Government necessary before a State Government or any other authority that issues direction for reserved forests (which have been reserved under the Indian Forest Act 1927), use of forest land for non–forest purpose, assigning forest land by way of lease or otherwise to any private person or to any authority, corporation, agency or any other organization not owned, managed or controlled by the government and clear felling of naturally grown trees.

The objectives behind the Act

  • To expand the establishment of forestry by confirming long term harvest levels based on the availability of best scientific information.
  • To be sure at a high term forest productivity and saving the resources of the forest by afforestation, soil conservation and many more measures.
  • To keep the quality of water good in lakes, streams, and other water bodies.
  • To handle the nature and distribution of wildlife habitats and add that to the conservation of biological diversity by the development and implementation.
  • To handle the visible impact of cultivation and other forest activities.
  • To tell everyone the efficiency of the use of forest resources.
  • To expand the practice of forestry through advanced programs.
  • To make improvements for forest research, technology and science.
  • To make the forest management better by appointing the resource professional, contractors by conducting training and educational programs.
  • Words to agree with applicable federal, state, provincials or local news and regulations.
  • To expand the activities in forestry by cheering the public and forestry community to take part in the commitment to forestry and report progress publicly.


  • To apply for reforestation after harvesting and keep them productive.
  • To save the forest from wildfire, diseases, pests and other harmful organisms and hence, to keep up the productivity and improve the forest-land base in the long term.
  • To keep the forest-land safe and maintain soil productivity.
  • To save the water bodies in the forests.
  • To make the forest land as so special that it could have unique qualities and also perform a diversity of habitats in wildlife.
  • To agree with the state rules and orders which are related to the Environmental laws, regulations and statutes.
  • To make continuous profits by practising the activities of forest management and also take care and report the performance to the forestry.

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