Constitution of India is a supreme law of India. Although it is borrowed yet it is unique . The feature that makes our Constitution unique are as follows :-
• Lengthiest written Constitution
Constitutions are generally of two types written and unwritten. Constitution of India is written Constitution. It is used as an evidence of rules. It is the most comprehensive of all written Constitution of the world.
Originally the Constitution of India consisted of a preamble,395 Articles which were divided into 22parts and 8 schedule. But due to insertion and repeals of various articles made by amendments to the Constitution, there is a confusion exists about number of articles. Now our Constitution consists of a preamble, 470 Articles, 25 parts and 12 schedules.
Reason behind length of Indian Constitution
1. Geographical Factor – Vastness of India and its diversity is one of the important reason behind length of Indian Constitution.
2. Historical Factor – Indian Constitution is influenced by government of India act 1935 which is itself a bulky document.
3. Single Constitution – India has a single Constitution for centre as well as state that’s why it is lengthy
4. Dominance of legal luminaries
At the time of making of Indian Constitution most of the members of constituent assembly were from law background.
• Drawn from various Sources
Constitution of India is ransacked from various sources, structural part is taken from Government of India act 1935, Philosophical part is taken from American and Irish Constitution and political part is taken from British Constitution.
• Blend of rigidity and flexibility
Indian Constitution is rigid as well flexible Some part of the Constitution can be amended by ordinary law making procedure whereas some provisions can only be amended by passage of both union parliament and half of the state legislature. This shows that Indian Constitution is partially rigid and partially flexible.
• Federal system with unitary features
India is a quasi federal country which means it have various federal features still it is unitary .
FEDERAL FEATURES :- division of power, written Constitution, independent judiciary, Bicameralism, rigidity.
UNITARY FEATURES :- Single citizenship, flexibility, integrated judiciary, emergency provisions, strong centre
• People as source of authority
The Constitution of India draws its authority from people as our preamble starts with “ we the people of India “
• Independent as well as integrated judiciary
Judiciary is kept free from influence of the executive and legislature which represents its independent but organs of judiciary are connected to each other this depicts the integrity of judicial components.
• Parliamentary government
India has parliamentary system of government both at state as well as central level
• Secular states
Indian state does not have any religion of state but it allows everyone to follow his religion.
• Directive principles of state policy
One of the most important and unique features of Indian
Constitution is the provision of Directive principles of state policy to secure a truly welfare state. DPSP are non-justiciable but still government has to keep in mind that it cannot exploit rights of citizens while formulating any policy.
India has 2 Houses of parliament at both central and state level at central level – lok sabha and Rajya sabha while at state level vidhan sabha and vidhan parishad.
• Fundamental rights and duties
Fundamental rights are the claim of citizens against state. They are not absolute but enforceable and justifiable in court of law.
Fundamental duties are the responsibilities of citizens towards the state.
• Official language of India
Hindi in the Devanagari script is declared as the official language of India.
• Emergency provisions
Indian Constitution has special provisions to meet any extraordinary situation or emergency.
During emergency central government becomes powerful and state comes under the total control of it. In this situation federal system becomes unitary without any amendment in Constitution.
• Universal adult franchises
One person – one vote.
Every Indian who is 18 or above 18 years of age is able to vote in election irrespective of caste, race, sex or religion. Originally India provides voting rights to person above 21 years of age but through 61th amendment of 1989 this is reduced to 18.
- • Single citizenship
Unlike federation, where citizens enjoy dual citizenship of both state and union, India has a single citizenship system provided by union and recognised by all states across India.
✒ Having these features India is a Sovereign, socialist, secular, democratic and Republic state.