ENVIRONMENT PROTECTION LAWS – By SOHINI BISWAS

Environment is surrounding where person, animal, plant lives. Environment includes living as well as non living things, where Living beings depend on non living beings of environment for their survival. Environment plays an important role in living healthy life and the existence of life on earth. Earth is home for different Living species are dependent on environment for food , air , water and other needs. Therefore it is a duty of every individual to protect and save our environment.

WHAT DO WE MEAN BY ENVIRONMENT PROTECTION?

Environment protection is the practice of protecting natural environment by individuals , organizations and government. In other words, environment protection refers to the protecting and saving the environment from direct and indirect impact of human and their activities. The main objective of environment protection is to conserve natural resources and the existing environment and also try to repair the damage that has been already caused to environment.

ENVIRONMENT :- It includes water, air and land and the interrelationship that exist among them and human beings, other living things, plants and property.

ENVIRONMENT POLLUTANTS :- It means any solid, liquid or gaseous substance present in Environment and tend to be harmful for environment.

ENVIRONMENT PROTECTION :- It means PRESENCE OF ENVIRONMENT POLLUTANT IN ENVIRONMENT.

“ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION IS AN INCURABLE DISEASE. IT CAN ONLY BE PREVENTED.”

NEED AND IMPORTANCE OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION:-

It is said that “A person’s environment consists of the sum total of the stimulation which he receives from his conceptions till his death”. It can be concluded from the above definition that environment comprises of various types of forces such as physical, intellectual, economic, political, cultural, social, moral and emotional. Environment is the sum total of all the external forces and conditions, which affect the life, nature, behavior and growth, development and maturation of living organisms.

For better use of resources:- Resources are limited, if they are not use properly they will get exhausted soon. For appropriate and reasonable use of resources, environment management is necessary. It is our basic responsibility to create an accurate co-ordination and equilibrium between the needs and procedure of the environment.

For the Conservation of natural beauty which involves Flora and Fauna:- The natural beauty is the most elegant beauty mankind has ever came across, mother earth has lot of potential to grow and feed living beings with natural, healthy and sustainable life. Many flora and fauna such as psilotum nodun , Diospyros celebica , Asiatic Lion , Bengal Tiger, Nilgiri Tahr are the verge of extinction which have staged the prestige of our country India for years.

For Sustainable Development:- There is an urgent need to create awareness amongst the people that we have no other options than to follow the rule of sustainability principles. Only then life of mankind on this earth would secure and our future generations will be safe.

For Reducing Global Warming:- Being aware and implementing solutions for the environmental protection may significantly reduce the global warming impact. Burning fossil fuels(oil, coal and natural gases), we release carbon dioxide and heat absorbing gases, that causes global warming and may bring about sea level rise and catastrophic climatic changes. Acid Rain is result of it.

To Overcome Environment and Ecology Crisis:- Environment Protection is the need of an hour. The present development has reached to such peak where environment and ecological aspects are on very crucial crisis, if the same has to be continued it will affect environment in disastrous way.

For Economic Need and Values:- Environmental Protection is needed to give directions to the economic values and needs in relation with proper healthy clean life.

To Reduce Disasters:- Environmental Protection reduces the risk of disasters like flooding, forest fire, earth quakes, desertification, transport accidents, global warming etc. People need to explore link between environmental systems and disasters and also the synergies between the man-made and natural disasters.

To Decide the Limiting Line between Environment and Development:- Environmental Protection is important to dram a line of limit for development and environment. For example, if our development leads to global warming and depletion of Ozone Layer, then we must not use the materials and modify our way of dangerous development. We may adopt a good way of development which involves forestation, conservation of Flora and Fauna.

CAUSES OF ENVIRONMENT POLLUTION :-

1. INDUSTRIES have been polluting our Environment since the beginning of Industrial Revolution , Environment is being polluted also due to increasing use of fossil fuels. Pollution by industries cause air pollution, soil and water contamination which leads to Environmental Pollution.

2. TRANSPORTATION:- With increasing population, traffic is increasing everyday and pollution is also following that evolution.

3. AGRICULTURE ACTIVITIES:- Increased use of pesticides is mainly responsible for contamination of water and soil.

4. TRADING ACTIVITIES AND RESIDENCE are also the cause of Environmental Pollution as these are also causing damage to our Environment.

THE ENVIRONMENT PROTECTION ACT:-

The Environment Protection Act was enacted in 1986. The main objective of the act was to support and promote the management protection and enhance the wise use of the Environment. The Environment Protection Act was first enacted in 1973. The term Environment is understood in very wide term under Sec 2(a) of The Environment Act. Environment is defined as “Environment includes water, air and land and the interrelationship which exists among and between air, water and land and human beings, other living creatures, plants, micro-organism and property.” The Central Government is empowered to take necessary measures to protect and improve the quality of Environment.

ENVIRONMENT PROTECTION UNDER INDUAN CONSTITUTION:-

Environment protection is one of the basic requirement for the overall development of any country in the world. Constitution of India is not inherit, it grows and evolve with time. The specific provisions on Environment protection in the constitution are also result of evolving Constitution with nature and time.

THE PREAMBLE of our Constitution states that “ we the people of India, having solemnly resolved to constitute India into sovereign socialist ….. ” where socialist society promotes Environment Protection.

The Indian Constitution contain many specific provisions for Environment Protection under Part 3 of Fundamental Rights, Part 4 of Directive Principal Of State Policy and Part 4 A of Fundamental Duties.

It is the fundamental duty of every citizen to protect Environment. According to Article 51-A(g) It is the duty of every citizen of India to protect and improve the natural environment including forests, lakes, rivers and wild life and to have compassion for living creatures.

The Directive Principal under Indian Constitution take steps to build welfare state that also include Healthy Environment. Article 48A of the Constitution says that “The state shall endeavor to protect and improve the environment and to safeguard the forests and wild life of the country”.

Article 47 provides that “The State shall regard the raising of the level of nutrition and the standard of living of its people and the improvement of public health as among its primary duties.”

Part 3 of Constitution deals with Fundamental Rights in which Article 14, 19 and 21 have been also used for Environment Protection.

ENVIRONMENT LAWS IN INDIA :-

1.E-Waste (management and handling) Rules, 2011 – The objective was to reduce the use of hazardous substances in electrical and electronic equipment.

2.BATTERIES (management and handling) RULES, 2001 – It deals with proper and effective management of lead acid batteries waste.

3.THE WILDLIFE PROTECTION ACT, 1972 – The objective was to protect wildlife and control poaching, smuggling and illegal trade in wildlife. Act was amended in 2003 where punishments and penalty for offences under act have been made more stringent.

4.FOREST CONSERVATION ACT , 1980 – It Strictly restricted the demolition of forest and use of forest land for non-forest purpose.

5.PUBLIC LIABILITY INSURANCE ACT, 1991 – The objective was to provide damages to victims of an accident which occurred in handling hazardous substances.

CONCLUSION :-

“Earth is our paradise and it is our duty to protect our paradise.”

It take a minute for destructing the things but it take months to construct it and years to regain it . Thus , we should always save and conserve . Healthy Environment is essential to live healthy life. The country whose citizens are healthy and fit can contribute towards economy and developing their nation. We need to take care of our Environment so that it become healthy place to live. Here are simple things that can be done on an individual level

• Reduce Pollution

• Carpool

• Ride Public Transportation

• Conserve Energy

• Turn Off Lights When Not In Use

• Take Short Showers

• Turn Off Water (Taps) When Not In Use

• Recycle , Reduce And Reuse

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