Emergence of Corporate Governance in India
Corporate Governance is the new golden term coined in the corporate sector in the late 1990’s by the Industry Association on Confederation of Indian Institute which was the first initiative in India as a voluntary measure to be adopted by Indian companies. It has outlined a series of voluntary recommendations to integrate best-in-class practices of corporate governance in listed companies which touches the four cornerstones of fairness, transparency, accountability, and responsibility in managing the affairs of the company. The second major initiative was taken by Security Exchange of India (SEBI) as Clause 49 of the Listing Agreement. The third key initiative to effectively introduce Corporate Governance was taken by Naresh Chandra Committee and Narayana Murthy Committee who previewed Corporate Governance model working in companies from the viewpoint of shareholders, investors, and other stakeholders of the company. Corporate governance guidelines both mandated, and voluntary have evolved since 1998, due to the sincere efforts of several committees appointed by the Ministry of Corporate Affairs (MCA) and the SEBI. The real change in the corporate sector could be felt with the introduction of 2009 Mandatory Corporate Governance Voluntary Guidelines which has to be comply by companies listed on stock exchange by Clause 49 of Listing Agreement including mandatory codes to be followed by companies pertaining to board of directors, audit committees and various disclosures with respect to related party transactions, whistleblower policies etc. The final assent to Corporate Governance practices in the effective management of the company can be seen as introduction to new significant provisions introduced in the Companies Act, 2013 in form of independent directors, women directors on the board, corporate social responsibility and mandatory compliance of Secretarial Standards issued by Institute of Company Secretaries of India as per Section 118 of Companies Act, 2013.
Institute of Company Secretaries of India
“Corporate Governance is the application of best Management Practices, Compliance of Laws in true letter and spirit and adherence to ethical standards for effective management and distribution of wealth and discharge of social responsibility for sustainable development of all stakeholders.”
Standard and Poor
“Corporate Governance is the way a company is organized and managed to ensure that all financial stakeholders receive a fair share of the company’s earnings and assets.”
“Corporate governance is a field in economics that investigates how to secure/motivate efficient management of corporations by the use of incentive mechanisms, such as contracts, organizational designs and legislation. This is often limited to the question of improving financial performance, for example, how the corporate owners can secure/motivate that the corporate managers will deliver a competitive rate of return” – www.encycogov.com,
The Cadbury Committee U.K, defined corporate governance as follows
“It is a system by which companies are directed & controlled”.
Need of Corporate governance
The collapse of international giants like Eronf, Worlcom, Tyco, AOL and financial scams like Satyam have been big eye-openers in the corporate arena to make realise the company’s management, ownership and stakeholders the emergent need to comply with Corporate Governance principles in order to prevent themselves from paying huge corporate criminal liabilities in the future. These huge corporate giants paid the cost for lack of good corporate governance practices and corrupt policies adopted by management of these companies and their financial consulting firms
The significance of good corporate governance solutions has widened because of the increasing conflict between ownership and management disciplines, the non-compliance of financial reporting by auditors which inflicts heavy losses on investors and lack of fair and transparent culture in the company which shook’s investor trust in the financial viability of the company and its ethical standards.
EMERGENCE OF CS