Difference between culpable homicide and murder

Homicide is one of the most grievous act a person can commit as it is the highest order of bodily injury inflicted on a human being hence that’s why regulations regarding Homicide are really grave, for instance, culprits are usually sentenced to life imprisonment or the death penalty as these are the most extreme punishments given by the judiciary. In India
Section 299 of the Indian Penal code talks about culpable homicide and section 300 of IPC deals with murder. There is a faint line difference between both of them. This frequently causes problem to advocates, legal practitioners that where to lie the case, because of the minor difference.
Difference Between Section 299 and 300 of IPC Culpable homicide is a genus and murder its specie. “All murders are culpable homicide, but all culpable homicides are not murder.”According to Section 299 of the India Penal Code, culpable homicide means the unlawful killing of a human being, and this killing becomes murder when the act firstly fulfills all the conditions of section 299 and then section 300. Categorization In Culpable HomicideWe can divide culpable homicide into two parts:
(1) Culpable Homicide Amounting to Murder (CHAM) – The act which
fulfills the conditions of section 299 and then 1st part of section 300.
(2) Culpable Homicide Not Amounting to Murder (CHNM) – The act which fulfills the conditions of section 299 but it either does not fulfill the conditions laid down in section 300 or lies in exceptions to section 300,
that is the second part (if an act comes under exceptions of 300 then the act of murder becomes culpable homicide).
Comparison Between Section 299 and Section 300, IPC
Now, let us compare both the sections and see when does culpable homicide amounts to murder.
(1) First Point of Difference
The phrase “an act with the intention of causing death” has been used in section 299 and 300
both. Then where is the difference?
Sometimes an intentional act that causes death will not amount to murder because it falls under the five exceptions provided in section 300, that’s culpable homicide not amounting to murder.
So, if an intentional act which fulfills the condition of section 299, but it
goes to the second part of section 300(exceptions), then that act does not amount to murder.
(2) Second Point of Difference
Whoever causes death by performing an act with the intention of causing such bodily injury as
is likely to cause death.
Comparing this part of 299 with 300, that is, if the act is done with the intention of causing such bodily injury where the offender knows that it is likely to cause death of the person to whom the harm is caused. If the act is done with the intention of causing such bodily injury to any person and where the bodily injury intended to be inflicted is sufficient in the ordinary course of nature to cause death.
Bodily Injury + Intention + Knowledge = CHAM
Here, for this part, we can clearly see that an act, when done with intention but not with knowledge, will not amount to murder, and it will be culpable homicide not amounting to murder. Bodily Injury + Intention = CHNMBut even if there is an absence of knowledge and the bodily injury intended to be inflicted, in the ordinary course of nature is sufficient, it will amount to murder.
Bodily injury that is sufficient in the ordinary course of nature to
cause death + Intention = CHAM
(3) Third Point of Difference If a person causes death by doing an act with the knowledge that he is likely by such act to
cause death. This is the last condition laid down in 299.
So if we raise the degree a bit higher, then the act will fall under 300.
If the person committing the act has the knowledge that it is so imminently dangerous that it will in all probability, cause death or such bodily injury as is likely to cause death, and thereby he commits such act without any excuse for incurring the risk of causing death or such injury as aforesaid, amounts to murder. Knowledge is in both the cases, but the degree makes the difference.
Example: I had a knowledge that if I give very tight two-three slaps to an
old person who is very weak, he may die due to nervous shock. And if he dies, it will be culpable homicide not amounting to murder.
But what if I start beating him so severely that blood starts coming out.
Knowing that the man is so weak that he will not be able to bear the pain

sg

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