Defamation is described as any deliberate false communication whether written or spoken, that damages a person’s credibility, reduces the esteem, regard, or trust in that person, or produces disparaging, aggressive, or disagreeable opinions or feelings against that person.

Defamation is the act of making false claims about someone else to damage their reputation. It’s a remark that tarnishes someone’s credibility. Defamation is the act of saying false things to cause others to have a negative opinion of someone. Defamation is defined as the communication of information to someone other than the person who has been defamed that has the effect of lowering the plaintiff’s reputation among right-thinking people or discouraging them from associating or dealing with him. Defamation is a wrong done to another’s name by the use of language, whether written or spoken, a symbol, or some other recognizable representation.

Libel and slander are two types of defamation. Libel is described as slander that is rendered in writing and published in any permanent and recognizable manner. Slander is the term for defamation that occurs when a comment is expressed by spoken words.

Under Sections 499 and 500 of the IPC, defamation may be a civil or criminal offense.

Section 499 of the IPC states that anyone who makes or publishes some imputation concerning any person, whether spoken or meant to be read, or through signs or obvious symbols, intending to hurt, or knowing or having cause to suspect that such imputation would harm, that person’s name is said to defame that person.

Section 500 of the IPC states that someone who defames another is subject to simple imprisonment for a period of up to two years, a fine, or both.

How can defamation be established?

1) Statement- A sentence, which may be voiced, written, pictured, or even gestured, must be made.

2) Publication- For a defamatory statement to be published, it must have been seen, heard, or read by a third party. There will be no reputational harm if there is no publication, and no action will be taken.

3) Accident- The source of the argument may have been injured as a result of the aforementioned argument. It means that the comment must have the potential to damage a person’s credibility.

4) Inaccuracy- The defamatory argument must be inaccurate. If the argument is not false, it would not be deemed defamatory.

5) Unprivileged- A sentence must be unprivileged to be defamatory. There are some situations in which a person cannot sue another for defamation.

Defenses that can be claimed against defamation are:

1) Justification of truth – If the complainant may show that the defamatory statement is valid, no action can be taken against him, even if the statement was made maliciously. It is not necessary to prove that the assertion is actually true; it is enough if it is true in spirit.

2) An honest and sincere remark-
A truthful and genuine speech on a topic of public concern should be seen as a defense in a defamation case. The below are the basic elements of a rational comment:
(i)That it is a statement of opinion or criticism rather than a statement of fact;
(ii) The statement is on a subject of public concern;
(iii) That the comment is truthful and equitable.

3) Assertion of privilege-
When a comment is deemed privileged, lawmakers have agreed that it is not possible to sue for slander. If a sentence is privileged or unprivileged is a legislative judgment that is made by legislators.

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