Caste in Indian society refers to a group during which affiliation is essentially determined by birth. This class structure became fixed and hereditary with the increase of Hinduism. Those of rock bottom caste are informed that their place within the caste hierarchy is thanks to their sins in their past life.Manusmitri, the foremost reliable text of Hindu religion legitimizes social exclusion and introduces absolute inequality because the guiding rule of social affairs. Caste still considerably matters to Indian citizens even within the times, though one must means that different groups of citizens have different reasons for maintaining the system of caste.It’s fairly often to ascertain that the lower caste groups, who are alleged to hate the class structure, also use their caste identity to realize benefits within the corridors of power and politics and, at an equivalent time, they need to place a stop to the caste oppression imposed upon them by the upper castes.It’s an ironical and interesting situation of Indian society in modern India.Indian politics is essentially shaped by the cultural varieties, social, ethnic, caste, community and non secular pluralism.For majority of the students of politics, namely Myron Weiner India is probably the foremost important of all the newer countries of the so-called “third world” and in sight of its long and composite past, its vast population and its present position, the special value of such a rustic are often generally identified without doing an injustice to the other country. In every developing form of government, two sorts of politics are often acknowledged, the politics of ideology and therefore the polities of action. An analysis of the reciprocal action between the 2 can present a number of the foremost important strands of the essence and direction of political change occurring in such a system.
Role of caste in Indian politics:
The role of caste in Indian Politics are often specially discussed as below:
- Caste think about political socialization and leadership recruitment:
Different caste groups their loyalties behind political parties and their ideologies.He belongs either to at least one of the high castes or to scheduled castes. within the process of learning his political orientations, attitudes, and beliefs, he naturally comes under the influence of caste groups and casteism.Caste Influences Leadership Recruitment Process. this is often particularly true of caste conscious people of States like Haryana, Tamil Nadu, Bihar, and Andhra Pradesh.
- Caste based political parties:
Caste factor may be a component of the Indian party system. In India, there are numerous caste-based political parties which attempt to promote and protect the interest of a specific caste. The regional political parties, especially, stand predominantly influenced by the caste factor. DMK and AIADMK are non-Brahmin and nonBrahmin political parties from Tamil Nadu. In Punjab, Akali Dal features a community identity. It stands influenced by the difficulty of jats vs. nonjats. All political parties in India use caste as a way for securing votes in elections. BSP banks upon the support of Scheduled Castes while the BJP largely banks upon its popularity among caste Hindu and therefore the trading community.
- Caste and nomination of candidates:
The caste factor is a crucial determinant of electoral politics in India. While nominating their candidates from different constituencies the political parties confine mind the cast of candidate and cast of the voters therein particular constituency. As a results of this candidate is certain to urge the votes of voters of his caste.
- Caste and voting behavior:
In the election campaigns, votes are demanded within the names of caste.In elections, caste is that the most vital party. The Candidates asked for votes within the name of caste and that they raise the caste-based slogan like “jat ki beti jat ko, jat ki vote jat ko”. Such slogans do have an impact on voters and that they cast their choose favour of the candidate belonging to their caste.
Caste and Indian Constitution:
- Acts &Constitutional Provisions for a Casteless Society:
India has one among the simplest constitutions, but it’s rarely fully implemented. The below provisions are the results of the sincere efforts taken by the good Indians.
- Protection of Civil Rights Act-1976
- Prevention of atrocities against SC &ST‘s Act -1989 2.
- Fundamental Rights – First Right is that the Right to Equality:
- Article 14 – Equality before the law.
- Article 15 – Prohibition of discrimination on the idea of faith, race, caste, gender, and colour.
- Article 16 – Equal opportunities publicly employment.
- Article 17 – Abolition of untouchability.
- Article 18 – Abolition of titles.
- Fundamental Duty:
- Directive Principles of State Policy
- Article 38 – to market the welfare of the people by securing a social order permeated by justice – social, economic and political – and to attenuate inequalities in income, status, facilities, and opportunities.
- Article 46 –To promote the tutorial and economic interests of SCs, STs and other weaker sections of the society and to save lots of them from social injustice and exploitation.
- Article 330 – Reservation of seats in Lok Sabha for SC and ST‘s.
- Article 332 – Reservation of Seats in State Assembly for SC and ST‘s. Measures to be taken: The class structure can’t be eliminated without changing the mindset of the people. the matter has persisted largely due to the illiteracy and ignorance of the people. Hence they are doing not accept any social change.
The following points got to be searched for neutralizing the role of caste in Politics:
1.The basis of the reservation should be economic not caste in order that all the poor section of society are benefitted thereto.
2.Media should play a neutral role.
3.Caste-based violence must be eliminated through well-organized efforts.
4.The politician should rise above the politics of caste.
5.The education system should be remodeled on secular lines.
6.All schools must encourage community living by organizing community meals and every one students should be included in it.
7.School textbooks should be carefully revised. The study material should teach the scholars that the class structure is formed by man.
8.By promoting Inter-caste Marriage and by providing special offers for people whom do inter-caste marriage can bring changes within the next generation people.
Lastly concluding, there’s an in depth relationship between caste and politics in India and both influence one another. Caste is a crucial component of the social organization in India has made its special place within the Indian form of government at various levels. Casteism is that the biggest challenge for Indian democracy. Democracy and Casteism are against one another. India has adopted the liberal democratic system, which is especially supported equality, freedom, and justice. Caste stands for inequality supported birth. Caste loyalties other ethnic factors really divide the Indian political parties and but not the ideological differences. Election campaigns are conducted along caste lines and violence in polls is typically caste-based violence. Politics has become caste-ridden and castes have gotten politicized. Caste groups use politics because the means to secure their benefits. The democratization process will bring new leaders from the marginalized communities. People want development and need their voices to concentrate.
While class played a crucial role in explaining the 2014 election results, things has been very different in 2019, when Narendra Modi seemed to be equally popular among all the strata of society, including the poor who didn’t vote for him in such large numbers 5 years before. Modi’s massive appeal to the poor is counterintuitive given the weakening of pro-poor policies just like the NREGA and therefore the rise of inequalities. This enigma can only be explained by the way Modi is perceived by the poor, not only together of them who is defending them against the rich (as evident from the demonetization moment), but as a person they will trust and who cares for them (as evident from the perception of Swachh Bharat, the Ujjwala Yojana, the Jan Dhan Yojana, PM-KISAN Yojana and therefore the Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana. albeit they need not benefitted from his largesse, they think that he will deliver through these highly publicized centrally sponsored schemes which are closely related to him. They also see him—like most of the BJP voters—as the strong man India must protect their country against the external threats.